Reformation and recusancy
The last known Carmelite friar in early modern England was George Rayner, imprisoned in York Castle and presumed a martyr. What is known about him is set out by Kevin Alban, O.Carm, in his study George Rayner - an Elizabethan Carmelite. To access it click here.
The article by Wilfrid McGreal, O.Carm., on the Carmelite Presence in England 1685-1740 gives a fascinating insight into the attempts to restore the Carmelite presence in England after the Reformation. Click here to download it.