The British Province of Carmelite Friars



 

 THE MEDIEVAL CARMELITE PRIORY AT YORK

 

 A Chronology

   

 Fr. Richard Copsey, O.Carm.
 
Carmelite Friars
63, East End Road
East Finchley
London
N2 0SE

September, 1995

 


CONTENTS

Part I:   INTRODUCTION

Part II:  A:   CHRONOLOGY OF THE CARMELITE HOUSE, YORK

            B:   NOTES ON THE HOUSE AND BUILDINGS

            C.  ORDINATIONS HELD IN THE CARMELITE CHURCH

            D:   LIST OF KNOWN PRIORS

            E:   POST-DISSOLUTION HISTORY OF THE SITE
 

Part III:  INDEX AND BIOGRAPHICAL DETAILS ON THE IMPORTANT
             CARMELITES ASSOCIATED WITH YORK
 

Part IV:  BIBLIOGRAPHY

 



PART I: INTRODUCTION

Introduction:

 This booklet contains references and information derived from a number of sources about the Carmelite friary of York which have been collected together in chronological order (Part II A).  This is followed by a listing of the occasions that the priory chapel is known to have been used for ordinations, the names of the known priors and the post-dissolution history of the site.  An index giving the names of the individual Carmelites associated with this house is given in Part III together with any further biographical details which are available concerning their careers (not yet entered).  Finally, Part IV contains a bibliography of the main sources used.

 

       Fr. Richard Copsey, O.Carm.

 
 

PART II A: CHRONOLOGY

(Unless otherwise indicated, all Carmelites mentioned in this chronology were, at the time, members of the community of the Carmelite Priory, York).

In the founders’ list: “Eboraci conventus fundatoris domini de Vescy et Percye predicti superius memorati 1255”  [De Vescy & Percy were also the founders of Hulne priory.  The first founder in each case was de Vescy and then the Percy’s as their descendants].

Note: Following the division of the province into four distinctions (regional groups) in the early 1300’s, York became the senior house of the York distinction.  It seems fairly clear that it also functioned as a regional study centre, offering theology courses for the brighter students from the other houses in the distinction.

First site in York

1253, 23 June The earliest known reference to the Carmelites in York is a grant by the king of:
   “... fratribus Beate Marie de Monte Karmeli commorantibus apud Eboracum sex quercus ... ad operaciones ecclesie sue faciendas...”  [C.C.R. 1251-53, 337: Egan, K., “Medieval English Carmelite Houses: England and Wales”, Carmelus, xvi (1969), 224].  The friars were clearly in residence by this date but for how long is unknown.  The previous house in the foundation lists is Cambridge which was founded 1247.

1255  The king made a further grant of five oaks.  [Close, 39 Hen III, m. 5: C.C.R. 1253-6, ...: VCH, 291]

1258, 18 Oct  "Grant to the Carmelite Friars of York of an area of land, 6 perches in length by 4 perches in breadth, without the wall of their court towards the stone cross at York, for the enlarging of their court; as it appears by inquisition ad quod damnum, made by the mayor and bailiffs of York, that this is not to the king's prejudice except that he will lose 12d. a year."
  [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1247-1258, (London: HMSO, 1908), 653].

1261  "To the sheriff of York.  Contrabreve to let the brethren of St. Mary of Mount Carmel dwelling at York have 2 marks without delay of the king's gift out of the issues of the county to hold their chapter.  [Cal. Liberate Rolls, 1260-1267, (London: HMSO, 1961), v, 27].  Note: VCH has 1260.

1269  The archbishop of York, Giffard, sent the prior 30s.  [Reg. Giffard, York (Surtees Society, ) 113].

1274, 20 Sept Ralph de Bretton was examined for priesthood in Blida church. (first recorded ordination from this house). [Reg. Giffard, York (Surtees Society, ) 197].

1275  The archbishop of York, Giffard, sent the prior 30s. and two quarters of wheat for the convent.  [Reg. Giffard, York (Surtees Society, ) 298]

1289, 27 April John le Romeyn, archbishop of York, requested the Provincial, Henry of Hanna (Carm.), to receive Richard Manlovel, a canon of Thurgarton, of the Order of St. Augustine, into the Carmelite Order.  [Reg. Romeyn, York, (Surtees Soc., 1913), 123].

1289  The Dean of York, Robert of Scarborough, desired to give a messuage and land in Wike-upon-Hull to the Carmelites to found a new priory.  [Inq. ad quod dam. file 12, no. 7: VCH, 291]  Note: This gift led to the founding of the Carmelite house in Hull.

1295, 14 July   "Order to the sheriff of York to enquire whether it will be to the damage of the king or others to grant that John Overton, chaplain, may grant a messuage in York to the Friars of the order of St. Mary of Mount Carmel."  [Cal. Chancery Warrants, 1244-1326, (London: HMSO, 1927), 64].

Carmelites move to a new site

1295, 16 Oct   "[Licence for the alienation in mortmain by William de Vescy who is going to Gascony on the king's service, for the saving of his soul and the souls of his ancestors,] to the prior and Carmelite Friars at York, of a messuage in Staynbogh in that city."
  [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1292-1301, (London: HMSO, 1895), 154].
  Benson has that the Carmelites moved to land which adjoined the Foss and Hungergate, given by William de Vescy in 1255.  [G. Benson, Later Medieval York, (York, 1919), 22].  Note: This is an error by Benson and should be 1295.

1300, 5 Feb Pope Boniface VIII wrote that he had been informed that the Carmelites had attempted to build a church in the parish of St. Saviour.  [The Register of Thomas Corbridge, Lord Archbishop of York 1300-1304, (Surtees Society, vol. 138, 1925), i, 61-2].

1300, 1 April Pope Boniface VIII appointed delegates to settle the dispute over the move of the Carmelites to the parish of St. Saviour.  The letter notes that the Carmelites had already settled in the new site.  [The Register of Thomas Corbridge, Lord Archbishop of York 1300-1304, (Surtees Society, vol. 138, 1925), i, 61].

1300, 13 June The king gave 8 oaks “... in order to build their church”.  [C.C.R. 1298-1302, 355].

1301, 17 Oct Agreement was reached between the rector of St. Saviour's parish (and the church’s patron, the Abbey of St. Mary, York) and the Carmelites concerning tithes, burials, compensation, etc.  A subscript states that the archbishop would permit the Carmelites to erect their church, have burials for their own brethren and for others who choose burial with them.  The agreement states that the Carmelites had already begun to live at their new place.  The Carmelites were to pay 30s. a year for tithes and other dues in return for the right to have the recently built church and its graveyard in the parish. [Reg. Thomas Corbridge, (Surtees Soc., vol. 138, 1925), i, 60-2].

1304, 30 March  Archbishop Corbridge gave a licence to the prior and brethren of the Order of the Blessed Mary of Mount Carmel staying in York to have their cemetery dedicated by any catholic bishop "illius, videlicet, loci, quem infra limites parochialis ecclesie sancti Salvatoris Ebor. jam inhabitare cepistis."  [Reg. Thomas Corbridge, (Surtees Soc., vol. 138, 1925), i, 111].

1304, 5 Oct An indulgence granted to those whose should visit the church on this day and make their offerings on the high altar of St. Mary for the sustentation of lights and ornaments.  [Drake, Ebor., 310: Audin, Handbook to York, 170: Fasti Ebor. 360: all in VCH, 292].

1304  Royal alms to the house at this time indicated a community of 24-25.  [Exch. Accts. (PRO) bdle. 356, no. 7: Liber Quotid. 28 Edw. 1 (ed. Topham), 38: VCH, 292]

1311, 18 March  Sir William Vavasour left the following bequest in his will:
  "Item Fratribus de Monte Carmeli XL solidos."
  [Wills and Inventories, (Surtees Society, No. 2: 1835), Part i, 14].

1312  Royal alms to the house indicated a community of 26.  [Exch. Accts. (PRO) bdle. 387, no. 9: VCH, 292]

1313  The archbishop of York, Greenfield, granted them alms on account of the excessive dearness of the times.  [Fasti Ebor., i, 392: VCH, 292].

1314  "-Inquisition taken at York, Sunday after the Decollation of St. John Baptist, 8 Edward II.  It is not to the damage, etc., if the Prior and Brethren of Mount Carmel [of York, in writ] have license to assign their 'place' in Buthum near York [where the Brethren of that Order formerly dwelt in writ] to Master Robert de Pykeryng, Dean of the Church of St. Peter, York, and his heirs, so that he may assign it to a chaplain to celebrate daily for the souls of the King's progenitors, formerly Kings of England, and of the King and his heirs, and of the said Robert, his ancestors and his heirs, and all faithful departed.  The 'place' is held of the King in frankalmoigne, without any service, but is charged with 12d. yearly rent to the Prebendary of Stranssale for a portion thereof, 6 perches long and 4 perches wide, outside the wall of the Court of the Brethren, towards the stone cross, for enlarging the said Court.  The place contains 2 acres, and is worth yearly ½ mark in all issues.
   Inq. ad. q. d., file 105, No. 9"
  [Baildon, William Paley, Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire: Part II, (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1931), Record Series, lxxxi, 90].

1314  "Inquisition taken at York, Sunday, the feast of St. Thomas the Martyr, 8 Edward II.  It is not to the damage, etc., if Master Robert de Pikering, Dean of the Church of Blessed Peter, York, have license to assign 3 messuages, 3 bovates and 36 acres of land and 4 acres of meadow in Knapton near Acum, to a chaplain to celebrate every day for the souls of the King's progenitors, sometimes Kings of England, and of the now King, and their heirs, and for the souls of Robert and his ancestors and their heirs, and for all faithful departed in a certain chapel of Blessed Mary at Buthum near York, where the Prior and Brethren of the Order of Blessed Mary of Mount Carmel at York formerly dwelt, which Robert intends to construct, for the expenses of the chaplain and of two other chaplains also celebrating there, and of the poor persons dwelling there.  The property (except the 3 bovates) is held of the Abbot of Blessed Mary at York, by the service of 1d. yearly, and is worth nearly 23s. in all issues.  No other lands in the Abbot's fee will remian to Robert.  The 3 bovates are held of Geoffrey Luterel, knight, by the 40th part of the service of one knight, where 15 carucates make a fee, and are worth yearly in all issues 15s.  No other land in the said town will remain to Robert of the said fee.  The is no one between the King and Robert except the said Abbot and Geoffrey.
  Inq. ad q. d., file 108, No. 8"
  [Baildon, William Paley, Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire: Part II, (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1931), Record Series, lxxxi, 90-1].

1314  "Inquisition taken at Styvelingflete, Sunday, the feast of St. Michael, 8 Edward II.  It is not to the damage, etc., if Master Robert de Pykering, Dean of the Church of Blessed Peter, York, have license to assign the advowson of the Church of Styvelingflete to a chaplain celebrating daily for the souls of the King's progenitors, Kings of England, and of the King, and their heirs, and of Robert and his ancestors and their heirs, and of all faithful departed, in a Chapel of Blessed Mary which Robert intends to build at Bouthum near York, where the Prior and Brethren of the Order of Blessed Mary of Mount Carmel at York were wont to dwell, in order that the chaplain may appropriate the Church and so hold it, for the sustentation of himself and two other chaplains and of the poor persons living there.  If Master Robert should die leaving an infant heir, Thomas de Wake, as chief lord of the fee, would have the wardship, and he is in ward to the King; the advowson is held of Thomas (who holds of the King in chief), with certain lands and tenements there, by the service of the fourth part of a fee; the Church is worth yearly in all issues £40.
     Inq. ad q. d., file 107, No. 18"
  [Baildon, William Paley, Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire: Part II, (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1931), Record Series, lxxxi, 91].

1314  The archbishop of York, Greenfield, granted them alms on account of the excessive dearness of the times.  [Fasti Ebor., i, 393: VCH, 292].

1314, 20 Sept   "Licence, after inquisition ad quod damnum made by the sheriff of York, for the alienation in mortmain by the Carmelite prior and friars of York of a plot of land in Bouthum-by-York, held in frank almoin, upon which they at one time were accustomed to dwell, to Master Robert de Pikeryng, king's clerk, dean of the church of St. Peter, York, so that he may assign it to a chaplain to celebrate divine service daily for the souls of the king's progenitors, kings of England, for the soul of the king and the souls of his heirs, and also for the souls of the said Master Robert de Pikeryng and of his ancestors and heirs and of all Christians.
   The grace was granted for two hundred masses to be celebrated in consideration thereof.
  [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1313-1317, (London: HMSO, 1898), 177].

1314, 2 Oct   "Grant to the Carmelite prior and friars at York of those messuages and plots of land in York in the street called 'Mersk', adjacent to their dwelling, which the king held of the gift of Geoffrey de Sancto Quintino, to hold in frank almoin for the enlargement of their said dwelling."
  [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1313-1317, (London: HMSO, 1898), 182].
  The Carmelites were also granted permission to build a quay on their own ground on the bank of the king’s stew of the Foss, and to have one boat in the stew to carry stones, brushwood and other necessities to their house.  [printed in Drake, Ebor., app.: in VCH, 292: Cal. Pat. Rolls 1313-7, 185: G. Benson, Later Medieval York, (York, 1919), 41].

1315  The archbishop of York, Greenfield, granted them alms on account of the excessive dearness of the times.  [Fasti Ebor., i, 396: VCH, 292].

1315, 28 Jan   Licence to Master Robert de Pikeryng to allocate land to his chaplain.  The licence contains the phrase:
  "... in a chapel of St. Mary, which the said Master Robert de Pikeryng intends to build for divine worship at Bouthum by York, where the Carmelite prior and friars of York formerly dwelt."
  [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1313-1317, (London: HMSO, 1898), 213].

1315, 1 Sept   "Grant in frank almoin to the prior and Carmelite friars of York in frank almoin, for the enlargement of their dwelling-place, of the land in the city of York, which the king had of the grant of Thomas son of William le Aguiller of York and Cicely his wife, the bounds of which are specified in the said grant."
  [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1313-1317, (London: HMSO, 1898), 348].

1316, 24 Sept   "Grant in frank almoin to the Carmelite prior and friars of York, for the enlargement of their dwelling-place, of the land with the building thereon in Fossegate in the city of York, which Thomas son of William le Aguiler of York and Cicely his wife granted to the king; grant also to them of the land in the same city which Abel de Rikhale of York had granted to the king."
  [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1313-1317, (London: HMSO, 1898), 548].

1317, 8 Sept   "Licence for the alienation in mortmain by Master Robert de Pikering, dean of the church of St. Peter, York, of the advowson of the church of Styvelingflet to a chaplain to celebrate divine service daily for the souls of the king, his progenitors and heirs, and also for the souls of the said Robert and his heirs and of all Christians, in a chapel of St. Mary, which he intends to found at Bouthum by York, where the prior and friars of the Carmelite Order of York had been accustomed to dwell...."
  [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1317-1321, (London: HMSO, 1903), 22].

1318, 10 Nov   "Licence for the alienation in mortmain by Master Robert de Pikeryng, dean of the church of St. Peter, York, of the advowson of the church of Styvelyngflet, in the diocese of York, to Richard de Grymeston, master of the hospital of St. Mary, Bouthum by York, chaplain, celebrating divine service daily for the souls of the king and his progenitors and heirs, and also for the souls of the said Robert, his ancestors and heirs, and of all Christians in the said hospital, which the said Robert founded in the place in which the Carmelite Friars were formerly accustomed to dwell; ...."
  [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1317-1321, (London: HMSO, 1903), 259].

1320  Archbishop Melton of York ordered the friars to pay yearly to the rector of St. Crux a sum to pay compensation for the fact that part of the new Carmelite site lay within the parish.  [Drake, Ebor, 310: VCH, 292]
 
1320  Royal alms to the house indicated a community of 26.  [Brit. Libr., Add. Ms. 17362, fo. 3: VCH, 292]

1322, Aug William de Paul was prior of the York house.  [P.R.O., Exch. Issue Roll, E 403/198: in Emden, op. cit., 1437].

1327 May King Edward III came to York where he collected an army to fight the Scots.  Knights and soldiers arrived from Hainault in June under the command of Sir John Hainault and the king assigned the house of the White Friars as the abode of Sir John and his household.  On Trinity Sunday, the king held a banquet and a dance.  During the revels, the guests were disturbed by an affray in the streets between the Hainaulters and the Linconshire archers.  The Hainaulters were driven back to their quarters by the archers but subsequently the foreigners repulsed them.  There was much bloodshed and eighty archers were buried under one stone in St. Clement's churchyard, Fossgate.  Fearing another outbreak, the king sent the Hainaulters home.  [G. Benson, Later Medieval York, (York, 1919), 34-5].

1328, 23 Feb   A licence was granted to the Carmelites of York to have their high altar and some portable altars consecrated by any bishop.  [Reg. Melton, York, (C.Y.S., 1977), i, 88].

1328, 5 Oct Archbishop Melton of York dedicated an altar at the friary.  [W. H. Dixon, Fasti Eboracenses, Lives of the Archbishops of York, i, 419: Fabric Rolls of York Minster (Surtees Soc.), 236: VCH, 292].

1328, 11 Oct An indulgence relating the altar consecrated on 5 Oct was granted by archbishop Melton of York.  [W. H. Dixon, Fasti Eboracenses, Lives of the Archbishops of York, i, 419: Fabric Rolls of York Minster (Surtees Soc.), 236: VCH, 292].

1331, 6 July   "Licence for the alienation in mortmain to the prior and Carmelite Friars at York by John de Hathelsay of York and William de Thouthorp of Flaxton, respectively, of a messuage for the enlargement of their dwelling-place in that city.  The said messuages are held of the king in burgage by yearly service of 2d. as appears by the inquisition."  [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1330-1334, (London: HMSO, 1893), 156].

1335  Royal alms to the house indicated a community of 38.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Cotton Nero C. viii, fo. 52, 202: VCH, 292]

1337  Royal alms to the house indicated a community of 42.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Cotton Nero C. viii, fo. 52, 206v: VCH, 292]

1338, 30 June   "Licence for the alienation in mortmain by Master William la Zouche, king's clerk, to the prior and Carmelite Friars of York of 3 acres of land and certain houses built thereon for the enlargement of their dwelling-place."
  [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1338-1340, (London: HMSO, 1898), 106].

1341, 12 Oct John Polestead, Carmelite provincial, died in York on 12 Oct 1341 and he was buried there "sub splendido marmore tumulatus".  [Bodl. Libr. Bodley Ms. 73, fos. 80, 133v: Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fos. 43v, 67v-68].

1342, 16 March  In the will of Christiana Rous, wife (relict) of John Rous occurs:
  "Item. do lego quatuor ordinibus Fratrum Mendicantium in Ebor. xijs. argenti equali porcione."  [Testamenta Eboracensis I, (Surtees Soc., vol. 4, 1855), 5].

1342, 4 Sept   In the will of Magister Thomas de Yarom occurs:
  "Item. fratribus Carmelitis civitatis memoratae  xld."  [Testamenta Eboracensis I, (Surtees Soc., vol. 4, 1855), 4].

1344  Ralph O’Kelly, bishop of Leichlin, acted as assistant in York.  [C. Eubel, Hierarch. Medii et Recent. Aevi, (Regensburg, 1913, repr. 1960), i, 550].

1345, 4 Dec   In the will of Robert de Playce occurs:
  "Item fratribus predicationibus, minoribus, Carmelitis et ordinis Sancti Augustini Ebor.  xls. per equales porciones dividendos inter eos percipiendos."  [Testamenta Eboracensis I, (Surtees Soc., vol. 4, 1855), 10].

1345, 14 Feb   In the will of Peter del Hay de Spaldynton:
  "Item cuilibet ordini fratrum Ebor. dimidiam quarteriam bladi."  [Testamenta Eboracensis I, (Surtees Soc., vol. 4, 1855), 12].

1345, 30 April   In the will of Magister John de Wodhous:
  "Item fratribus predicatoribus, minoribus, Augustinis et de Monte Carmeli Ebor. xxvjs. inter ipsos equaliter dividendos."  [Testamenta Eboracensis I, (Surtees Soc., vol. 4, 1855), 15].

1348  The friars asked permission to extend their quay into the Foss in order to avoid an accumulation of mud.  [Inq. ad quod dam., file 291, no. 8: VCH, 292].

1349  There was a bequest to the house.  [Brit. Libr., Lansdowne Ms. 312: Index to the Charters & Rolls of the Department of Manuscripts: British Museum, ed. H. Ellis, (British Museum, 1912), ii, 836].

1350  The Carmelites had erected a chapel above the gateway to the Fossgate in which there was an image of Our Lady.  As this caused injury to the rector of St. Crux, they were ordered to remove the image and agree that no service would be celebrated there, no bell tolled and no oblation received.  [Drake, Ebor., ...: York Archiepis. Reg. Zouch, fo. 49: in VCH, 292].

1350, 22 July   "Licence, for 6s. 8d. which Roger de Fournays, 'barbour,' citizen of York, will pay to the king, for the alienation in mortmain by the same Roger to the dean and chapter of the church of St. Peter, York, of three shops in St. Andrew's Street, in the said city, held of the king in free burgage by the service of 1d. yearly to the housegabel, as appears by inquisition taken by Gerard Salvayn, escheator in the county of York, in exchange for a messuage in Hundegate, held of the king in frank almoin, as by the inquisition likewise appears, adjoining the dwelling-place of the prior and Carmelite Friars in the same city, to be given to the said prior and Friars and their successors by the dean and chapter for the enlargement of the said dwelling-place.
   And the 6s. 8d. have been paid in the hanaper."
  [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1348-1350, (London: HMSO, 1905), 553].

1358, March An order of protection from king Edward III was issued:
  "On behalf of Richard, son of John de Thornton, citizen and spicer of York, it has been shown that he when within the years of puberty was lately ensnared and seduced by some friars of the house of Carmelite Friars in York insomuch that by their persuasion he took the habit of the same friars in their house, and they fraudulently induced him so that they made him profess the order within the years of puberty de facto, although of right they could not, and although he within the time of his puberty and before the completion of the fourteenth year of his age laid aside the habit and went forth from the house and order, as lawful was for him to do in this case, as is asserted, as by process before the commissary general of the court of York, had thereof by the contumacy of the said friars and exhibited before the king, fully appears, nevertheless the prior and friars try to take him as an apostate; and the king has taken the said Richard into his protection and special defence, not willing that by colour of any licence to the friars of the said order of taking apostates of the order granted by the king or any mandate thereof directed to others, the said Richard be taken or disturbed until the matter betweeen them have been more fully discussed."
   [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1358-1361, (London: HMSO, 1911), 19].
  Later John Thornton was released from his vows.  [Pat. 32 Edw III, pt ii, m. 28; in A. Little, Hist. of Yorks., (V.C.H., 1913), iii, 292].

1362  "John de Calby, Prior of the Brethren of the Order of Blessed Mary of Mount Carmel at York, v. Roger de Shestre, mason, for breaking his contract to serve the Prior as mason [latomus] at Tadcastre.  Verdict for the plaintiff; damages, 40s.
   Coram Rege, Mich. 36 Edw. III, m. 36."
  [Baildon, William Paley, Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire: Part II, (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1931), Record Series, lxxxi, 91].

1368  A provincial chapter was held in York.  [Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 79v-].

1370-99  Bale records a Carmelite 'Richard Coventre' whom he describes as 'lector, nacione Anglius episcopus Cerviensis Carmelita.'  [Bodl. Libr. Bodley Ms. 73 (S.C. 27635), fo. 137v: Lambeth Palace Libr., Ms. 192, fo. 43v].  A 'Richard' bishop of Serviensis was acting as suffragan in York from 1370-1399.  [Handbook Brit. Chron., (Royal Hist. Soc., 1986), 285].  Bale describes him as 'vir venerabilis et devotus' and records that he died in York.  [Bale, J., Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 169].

1371  "A.D. 1371 - William, Prior of the Brethren of the Order of Blessed Mary of Mount Carmel at York, v. John de Taddecastre and Thomas, son of Henry de Grymeston of Taddecastre, for accounts as the Prior's receivers.
   De Banco, Trin 45 Edw III m. 184
     Mich 45 Edw III m. 204"
  [Baildon, William Paley, Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire: Part I, (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1894), Record Series, xvii, 242].

  Note: A 'Thomas, son of Henry de Grymeston, near Tadcastre' was one of the defendants of an action for a debt of 6 marks brought by the prior of the Carmelites at Scarborough, Mauger de Baildon, in 1369.  [Baildon, op. cit., 194].

1374  Brother John Harold was killed in the Carmelite house by brother John Wy.  [Pat. 10 Richard II, pt. ii, m. 37; in A. Little, Hist. of Yorks., (V.C.H., 1913), iii, 292].  John Wy was pardoned on 19 July 1386 for causing the death of fr. John Harald (Carm.) in 1374 in the York convent and his consequent outlawry.  [Pat. 10 Richard II, pt. ii, m. 37; A. Little, Hist. of Yorks., (V.C.H., 1913), iii, 292].

1378  "A.D. 1378 - William, Prior of the Order of Blessed Mary of Mount Carmel at York, v. Elen, widow of Thomas de Duffeld, William Barker of Tadcaster, Margaret, widow of John Calays and others; debt.
   De Banco, Hil  1 Ric II m. 228 d."
  [Baildon, William Paley, Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire: Part I, (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1894), Record Series, xvii, 242].

  Note: A 'Maude, widow of John Caleys of Tadcastre' was one of the defendants of an action for a debt of 10 marks brought by the prior of the Carmelites at Scarborough, Mauger de Baildon, 1369.  [Baildon, op. cit., 194].

1378  "A.D. 1378 - The Prior of the Order of Blessed Mary of Mount Carmel, York, v. John de Housom, potter, for breaking the Prior's close at York, and digging in his soil, and taking earth to the value of 10 marks.
   De Banco, Hil  1 Ric II m. 242 d."
  [Baildon, William Paley, Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire: Part I, (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1894), Record Series, xvii, 242].

1385  "A.D. 1385 - The Prior and Brethren of the Order of Blessed Mary of Mount Carmel at York, v. John de Driffeld, 'plastrer' for building an oven so badly that it utterly collapsed.  The Prior claims 20 marks damages.
   De Banco, Hil  9 Ric II m. 64."
  [Baildon, William Paley, Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire: Part I, (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1894), Record Series, xvii, 242].

1387  "A.D. 1387 - John Hardy, executor of the will of William Hardy, late parson of Lekyngfeld, and Mauger de Baildon, Prior of the Brethren of the Order of S. Mary of Mount Carmel, York, and Brother John de Pontfreyt, of the same Priory, co-executors of the said John, claim against Thomas de Shirburn, Prior of the Monastery or Priory of Drax, of the Order of S. Augustine, of the diocese of York, £100 which he unjustly detains.
   De Banco, Mich 11 Ric II m. 150 d."
  [Baildon, William Paley, Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire: Part I, (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1894), Record Series, xvii, 43].

1387  Maugerus (Clark-Maxwell has 'Mangerus'), the prior, issued a letter of confraternity to Roger Low.  [Bodl. Libr. Ms. Hearne's Diary 131, p. 1: in Rev. Clark-Maxwell, "Some further letters of confraternity" Archaeologia, lxxix, (1929), 212].

1389, 9 March   In the will of John, Lord Neville of Raby occurs the following bequest:
  "Item lego cuilibet Domui Fratrum quattuor Ordinum in Eboraco, et deinde usque Berwyke super Twede, et usque Karliolum et ibidem, xl s., ad distribuendam inter omnes Fratres Capellanos tantum cujuslibet conventus, sicut porcio dictae summae de xl s. possit extendere per aequales porciones, et quod quilibet dictorum Capellanorum sit seisitus de porcione sua."
  [Wills and Inventories, (Surtees Society, No. 2: 1835), Part i, 41].

1392  The reversion of two plots of land at the east and the west of the church was secured to the Carmelites by Henry de Percy, lord of Spofforth, and John de Acom, late parson of Catton, and by John Berden and John Braythwayte, after the death of Maud late wife of Henry de Rybstone.  [Pat. 16 Ric. II, pt. ii, m. 28, 21: VCH, 293: Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1391-6, 191].
  Note: It seems likely that after acquiring this property the Carmelite began to rebuild or enlarge their church.  See grant by bishop of Durham in 1404.

1396  A provincial chapter was held in York.  [Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 79v-].
 
1398, 2 May William Calverton, listed as magister, was granted permission to preach and hear confessions in the diocese of York on 2 May 1398.  [Reg. Scrope, York, (Borthwick Inst., 1981), ii, 12].  Note: He was a Carmelite of Nottingham when he was ordained deacon on 22 May 1372 at Sallowe.  [Reg. Stretton, Coventry & Lichfield, (William Salt Arch. Soc., 1905), viii, 259].

1399, 12 May John Kynyngham, Carmelite provincial, died in York and was buried there.  [Bodl. Libr. Bodley Ms. 73, fo. 42v].

1400  "A.D. 1400 - The Prior of the Brethren of the Order of S. Mary of Mount Carmel, York, and Brother Mauger de Baildon, of the same Priory, executors of the will of Dionis, widow of Walter Ferrour, claimed against William de Roweston of Beverley 20 marks debt, and against William de Cawode of Barton-on-Humber, 'littester', 4 marks debt.
   De Banco, East 1 Hen IV m. 365"
  [Baildon, William Paley, Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire: Part I, (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1894), Record Series, xvii, 243].

1400, 30 Jan A Carmelite, Thomas Forsett, described as 'sacre theologie lector' was granted permission to preach and hear confessions in the diocese of York.  [Reg. Scrope, York, (Borthwick Inst., 1981), ii, 12].
 
1400, 8 Aug Thomas Esk was granted permission to preach and hear confessions in the diocese of York.  [Reg. Scrope, York, (Borthwick Inst., 1981), ii, 12].
 
1402, 18 Aug Thomas Esington, listed as sacre pagine professor, i.e. D.Th., was granted permission to preach, hear confessions and impose penance on the confessed in the diocese of York.  [Reg. Scrope, York, (Borthwick Inst. 1986), ii, 13].

1404  Walter Skirlaw, bishop of Durham, left £40 in his will for the rebuilding of the church if it had not been finished by the time of his death.  [Test. Ebor., i, 308: VCH, 293].

1408  Sir Thomas Bardolf was attainted as a rebel and executed.  His heart was buried in the Carmelite church.  [VCH, 293].  See also Part II B.

1411, 18 April   In the will of Master Alan de Newerk, occurs:
  "Item lego quatuor conventibus fratrum mendicancium Ebor' iiij libras inter eos equaliter dividendas."  [Reg. Thomas Langley, Durham, 1406-37, ed. R. Storey, (Surtees Soc., 1956), i, 158].

1415  Lady Margaret Vavasour, widow of Sir Henry Vavasour of Hazlewood Castle, died and was buried in the chapel at Hazlewood.  In her will, she left 40s to the Carmelite friars of York.  [K. Longley, A Short History and Guide to Hazlewood Chapel, (Hazlewood, undated c. 1980), 5]
 
1426-7  Magister John Bate was prior of York when Thomas Netter, the provincial, wrote him a letter concerning the preaching of brother John Leysing who had asserted in a sermon at Doncaster on the Feast of the Purification that the offerings for the feast might be offered in churches other than the parish church.  [Mon. Hist. Carm., i, 474-5: Carmel in Britain, ii, ...].  This letter must be dated 1426-7 as it mentions the recent provincial chapter held in Oxford.  [Bodl. Libr. Bodley 73, fo. 81v].
 
1429, 26 Jan John Bate was still prior of York on 26 Jan 1429 when he died and was buried in the choir.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 94-94v].  The epitaph over his tomb was: 'Bati doctoris haec condit petra cadaver'.  [Mon. Hist. Carm., i, 474]
 
1430-1  William Houedan, Carmelite of York, was admitted to the Corpus Christi guild in York in 1430-1.  [Reg. Guild of Corpus Christi in the city of York, (Surtees Soc., 1872), 31].

1435, 21 June   In the will of Master Thomas Hebbeden, dean of Auckland, occurs:
  "Item lego iiij ordinibus fratrum infra civitatem Ebor' iiij marcas equaliter dividendas."  [Reg. Thomas Langley, Durham, 1406-37, ed. R. Storey, (Surtees Soc., 1959), iv, 160].

1438, 19 June The name of 'Brother Carlele', occurs in the will of John Staynhum, draper, dated 19 June 1438 when he was left a bequest of 6s. 8d.  [Borthwick Institute, P.R.3 525V: noted by Mrs. Tessa Frank].

1440  A provincial chapter was held in York.  [Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 79v-].

1442-3  Richard Huntplese and Robert Whixlay, Carmelites of York, was admitted to the Corpus Christi guild.  [Reg. Guild of Corpus Christi in the city of York, (Surtees Soc., 1872), 42].

1443, 13 July   Sir John Clervaux, of Croft left in his will: "the friars of York,  20s."
  [Saywell, Rev. J. L., The History and Annals of Northallerton, Yorkshire, (Northallerton: J. Vasey, 1885), rev. ed., 38].
  Note: He was possibly the son of the Sir John Clervaux who died in 1390 and left a bequest to the Carmelites of Northallerton.

1445  Thomas Carlyle, Carmelite of York, was admitted to the Corpus Christi Guild.  [Reg. Guild of Corpus Christi, (Surtees Soc., 1872), ].

1446, 7 Oct A Carmelite, William Pary, lector in theology, was licensed to hear confessions in the diocese of York.  [Reg. Kempe, York, fo. 105v].
 
1448  Pope Nicholas V confirmed the grant made to Thomas Carlyle, "a friar of York, by John, master general of the Order (with the unanimous consent of the chapter of the order then held in Asti) and the prior and friars of the said house, of certain privileges, etc.  contained more fully in letters bearing the seals of the said John and prior and convent which letters the pope has caused to be inspected".  This was not dated but some time between 19 March 1448 and 18 March 1449.  [C.P.L., x, 1447-1455, page?].

1453  Richard Waretyr, a Carmelite of York, joined the Corpus Christi guild.  [Reg. Guild of Corpus Christi in the city of York, (Surtees Soc., 1872), 52].

1461-2  George Hewod, a Carmelite of York, joined the Corpus Christi guild.  [Reg. Guild of Corpus Christi in the city of York, (Surtees Soc., 1872), 62].

1460 & 1462 John Green, Carmelite bishop of Kilfenora, acted as assistant to William Booth, archbishop of York, in 1460 and 1462.  [Memorials of the Church of SS. Peter & Wilfrid, Ripon, ed. J. Fowler, (Surtees Society, 1882), ii, 11: where Emden claims he is inaccurately designated 'bp. of the Isles' but see above].

1466 15 Jan   A feast was held to celebrate the installation of George Neville as archbishop of York at Cawood castle.  2,000 people were present at a magnificent banquet, among whom were 18 priors and possibly included the prior of the Carmelite house, York.  (For a full description, see Benson).  [G. Benson, Later Medieval York, (York, 1919), 88-9].

1469  Robert Miklow & Thomas Stanes, Carmelites of York, was admitted to the Corpus Christi guild.  [Reg. Guild of Corpus Christi in city of York, (Surtees Soc., 1872), 73].

1470  A Carmelite, Thomas Davell, was admitted as a member of the Corpus Christi Guild in York.  [Reg. of Corpus Christi Guild of city of York, (Surtees Soc., 1872), 78].

1475, 18 Feb   The ordination of Thomas Smyth was held in the Carmelite church, by William, the bishop of Dromore.  Thomas Smyth was later instituted to a chantry in St. Saviour's, York, on 1 March, 1483.  [Reg. Rotherham, York, (C.Y.S., 1976), i, 26].

1478, 19 Sept   An ordination was held in the Carmelite church of Edmund Kyrey by William, bishop of Dromore.  [Reg. Rotherham, York, (C.Y.S., 1976), i, 213].

1479, 18 Sept   An ordination was held in the Carmelite church.  [Reg. Bothe, York, (  ), ]

1481, 7 Sept   There was a grant of forty day's indulgence to those who contribute to the sustenance of paupers of either sex in the house called Masyndew in Whitefrerelayn, York.  [Reg. Rotherham, York, (C.Y.S., 1976), i, 191].

1490, 12 May   "Memorandum the xij day of May the fit yere of the reign of King Henry [the seventh] tofore the right wirshupful sir John Gillyot maier of the cite of [York], (William Tayte), Robert Johnson grocer, Peris Coke and John Stokesley arbitrours betwix (H. Thwayet) prior of the White Freris of the cite of York of the one partie, and the ({Sir Thomas Davell}) parson of Saynt Saveour within the same cite {of that othre partie}, awardes that for such receiting of freris of the same and certan gudes by the same freris to hym (brg) broght, the said parson to content and pay to the {said} prior (of the said prior) and behufe of the co[n]vent of the said white freris xl s. be [incomplete]."
  [The York House Books 1461-1490, ed. Lorraine C. Attred (Stroud, Glos.: Alan Sutton, for the Richard III & Yorkist History Trust, 1991), 679].

c.1500  There is a manuscript in the College of Arms, marked L8, which belonged to John Wrythe, alias Wriothesley, Garter, who died in died.  The document is partly in his writing and partly in that of his son, who succeeded him as Garter, and died in 1534.  In it, there is an entry on the Carmelites at York:
  "Memorandum quod quinto Idus Januarij ceperunt fratres Carmeliste inhabitare civitatem Eboracum, Anno domini Mo cco. lxxxxvo,  Et anno domini Mo cco xijo in Angliam intraverunt.
   Anno Milleno cco duodeno
   Rolum carmeliste capiunt ad termina vite
   Carmis concessi primus in boria loca Vessy
   Persy firmavit deus huic sibj nos sociabit.
    Cy enfuit les noms des nobles qui sont enterres en leglise des 'diz' freres.
   Et primo Johannes Vavasor armiger
   Item Radulphus Lasselles
   Item dominus Wilielmus Mylles miles
   Item dominus Thomas Malbys miles
   Item domina Isabella uxor ejus
   Item Johannes Nesby armiger
   Item Rybsten armiger
   Item cor domini de Bardolf."
  [Collectanea Topographica & Genealogica, (London: John Bowyer Nichols, 1837), iv, 128].

1500  In the will of Lady Jane Strangweys, there occurs the bequest:
  "...  I bequeath 40s to the four orders of friars within the said city of York, for four trentals of masses to be said, with Placebo and Dirige, for my soul and for all Christian souls within seven days immediately after the day of my burial, the aforesaid 40s. to be divided equally between them.  I wish the prior and the convent of each house of the four orders shall be present around my body on the day of my burial; and that each prior shall have 10s. towards the repair of his house; each priest who is present on the day of my burial shall have 4d.; each parish clerk 2d. and each child with a surplice, 1d.  ..."  [York, Borthwick Institute, Prob. Reg. 6, fos. 16v-18r: in Catholic England, trans. R. N. Swanson, (Manchester Univ. Press, 1993), 250].

1503  15 July   Queen Margaret came to York on her way to Scotland.  She was met outside the town by the two Sheriffs of York and 100 citizens on horseback.  Many of the nobility joined the retinue including Lord and Lady Latimer, Lord Scrope and the Duke of Northumberland and there were also friars from the four mendicant orders in York.  [G. Benson, Later Medieval York, (York, 1919), 110].

1522  A provincial chapter was held in York.  [Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 79v-].  It was presided over by the prior general, Bernadine Landucci ans John Bird was elected provincial.

1527, Monday 20 July  In the Earl of Northumberland's accounts occurs the following item:
  "...for repairs of the White Friars at York, £8."

1527-8  In the accounts of the Earl of Northumberland, there occurs the following:
  (From Michaelmas 13 Henry VIII to Michaelmas 14 Henry VIII)  "To John Carter, prior of the White Friars, York, annuity of 40s."
  (From Michaelmas 14 Henry VIII) "To friar John Cartier, prior of the White Friars, York, 40s."
   [L. & P. Henry VIII, ed. J. Brewer, (London: Longmans, 1872), iv, (2), 1533].

1534, April   Oath of Obedience:
  "All friars of every monastery must be assembled in their chapter house, and examined separately concerning their faith and obedience to Henry VIII, and bound by an oath of allegiance to him, Queen Anne and her present and future issue.  They must be bound by oath to preach and persuade the people of the above at every opportunity.  They must acknowledge the king as the supreme head of the Church, as Convocation and Parliament have decreed.  They must confess that the bishop of Rome has no more authority than other bishops.  They shall not call the bishop of Rome pope either privately or publicly, or pray for him as such.  They shall not presume to wrest the Scriptures, but preach the words and deeds of Christ sincerely and simply, according to the meaning of the Holy Scripture and Catholic doctors.  The sermons of each preacher must be carefully examined and burnt if not Catholic, orthodox and worthy of a Christian preacher.

  "Preachers must be warned to commend to God and the prayers of the people, first the King as head of the Church of England, then queen Anne with her child, and lastly the archbishop of Canterbury, with the other orders of the clergy.  Each house must be obliged to show their gold, silver and other moveable goods, and deliver an inventory of them.  Each house must take an oath under their convent seal to observe the above orders."  [Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, (London, 1883), vii, 590].

1536, 24 Jan On 24 Jan 1536, archbishop Lee of York reported to Thomas Cromwell that a 'light fryer' had been engaged in an ongoing argument with the vicar of Donacaster.  [Borthwick Institute, York, R.I.28, fo. 91: discussed in Fairfield, op. cit., 37-8].  The friar had been preaching on matters forbidden by the King and Lee had warned both him and the vicar to cease.  In the meantime, however, the vicar and certain parishioners had laid articles against the Carmelite, listing the objectionable points made in his preaching.  In response to a letter from Lee summoning him, the friar had replied that he was going to London for counsel.  Upon his return, he had been cited to appear before the archbishop but there was no response and Lee had appointed a commission to examine the articles and he intended to revoke the friar's licence to preach.  The name of the friar is not mentioned in Lee's records but Fairfield concludes that it was probably John Bale, then prior of Doncaster.  [Fairfield, op. cit., 37].

  Bale himself, in one of his books published in 1543, recalled that Lee had examined him on one occasion "upon the artycle of honourynge and prayenge to the sayntes, devyded into xvii artycles."  This examination, which may have been in 1536 or earlier after his previous problem, took place at York before archbishop Lee and in the presence of Geoffrey Downes, prebendary of Holme Archiepiscopi in the church of York.  (Downes was Bale's own tutor at Jesus College, Cambridge).  [Bale, J., Yet a course at the Romyshe foxe (Zurich, 1543), fos. 86a, 86b].

1536, 20 March James Higgs, Carmelite of the York diocese, was granted a dispensation to wear the habit of his order beneath that of a secular priest for a fee of £4.  [D. Chambers, Reg. Fac. Off., (Oxford, 1966), 48].  Bale lists him as one of those who: "...sua Babilone cum suis papisticis decretis relinquerunt.."  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 195v].  Note: From York or one of the other Carmelite houses in the diocese.

1538  "John Shaw, mayor and merchant of Fossgate, wished six aldermen preceded by the four orders of friars to bear his body to its resting place in the high choir of his parish church, St. Crux, in York."  [Reformation: Principle and Practice, essays in honour of A. G. Dickens, ed. Peter Newman Brooks, (London: Scolar Press, 1980), p. 210].

1538, 20 July   The prior of York was present at the trial of the heretic, William Cowbridge, for heresy at Aylesbury, and attempted to persuade him of his errors.  [Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, (London, 1893), xiii, (1), 1434, p. 429-30].

1538, 27th Nov  The surrender document was signed by the prior, ten friars (one signature obliterated) and three novices.
  The surrender document is preserved in P.R.O.:

  "Prioratus Fratrum Carmelitarum infra muros civitatis Ebor.  27th Nov 30 Hen. VIII.

  Signatures:
   Simon Clarkesum, prior  Robertus Towerson, presbiter
   Wylliam Gramswyke, presbiter Roger Ratclyff, presbiter
   John Whytt, presbiter   Christoforus Wanton, presbiter
   Thomas Mettyngam, presbiter Gylbrte Wode, presbiter
   Wilhelmus Relatson, presbiter John Wylson }
    ......   John Body } novicij
  Jacobus Jonson, presbiter  Peter Langstrope }

  The impression of the seal obliterated."
  [Eighth Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, (London, 1842), appendix ii, 51: Letters & Papers, Henry VIII, (1893), xiii, (2), 919 (p. 382)].

1538, 15 Dec   Letter from Sir George Lawson and others to Thomas Cromwell:
  "Have received his letters with the King's order concerning the lead and bells of the houses of religion contained in their commission.  Have already committed the custody of them to substantial persons and have sold none.  Have quietly taken the surrenders and dissolved the monasteries of ... and the friars at ... Doncaster, ...  York, 15 Dec."  [Letters & Papers, Henry VIII, (1893), xiii, (2), 1064 (p. 454)].

1538, Dec.   "A brief certificate made upon the dissolution of divers monasteries and priories there surrendered in the months of November and December in the 30th year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord Henry the Eighth.
    The contents are set forth in columns under the heads: 1 Names of the houses with names of the keepers.  2. Clear annual value.  3.  Number of abbots and brethren with their pensions.  4. Clear money remaining of the lands.  5. 'The stock, store, and domestical stuff there sold, with debts received.'  6. 'Rewards with the portions laid unto the abbots.'  7. Remains of the price of goods and chattels.  8. Lead and bells remaining.  9. Woods and underwoods.  10. Plate and jewels.
    The houses are ... White Friars, York (Sir George Lawson); ...
  ii. 'The particularities off plaite' in each house.

  2.  A first draft of §1, with two additional columns, showing the amount of debts owing to and by the different houses."  [Letters & Papers, Henry VIII, (1893), xiii, (2), 1172 (p. 486-7)].

  The vestments and other goods in the house consisting of kitchen and brewing utensils, four poor feather beds, coverlets, bolsters, etc. were bought by Sir George Lawson for £7 4s. 4d.  Out of this, £1 was given to the prior and £2 18s. 4d. distributed among the friars.  There were no debts.  The lead on the roof of the church, estimated at 20 fother, and two bells weighing 2,300 lb. were reserved.  The plate and jewels, sent to the king’s house, consisted of three chalices, one cross gilt, one flat piece, three masers, one salt, twelves spoons, and one pyx of ivory with silver foot, weighing in all 98 oz.  [Mins. Accts. 29-30 Hen. VIII (Yorks), no. 187: Suppression P. (P.R.O.), iii, fos. 5, 92, 93: in VCH, 293].

  The property consisted of the site, valued at 20s. per year, and seven tenements adjacent to it, which were soon let to tenants for £3 19s. per year.  [Mins. Accts. 30-1 Hen. VIII (Yorks), no. 166].

1539, 10 March   Letter of Richard Ingworth, bishop of Dover, to Thomas Cromwell:
  "Further my good Lord, in those parts within the diocese of York, the poor men that make surrender of their houses, be hardly ordered by the Bishop's officers at the Bishop's commandment, so that they cannot be suffered to sing [mass], nor say in any parish church, without they show the Letters of their Orders; my letters or their capacities notwithstanding; and the charges of these Letters of their Orders be so great that the poor men be not able to bear it; some must go an hundred miles to seek them, and when they come there, the charges of searching the register is so great that they be not able to pay it, and so they come home again confounded.
  "I have been with my Lord of York, and showed him your Lordship's letter, that your commandment is that they which so have surrendered their houses, should be suffered without interruption to sing and say in any church.  The Bishop made many objections, and said that it must be known whether they were priests or no, and I certified him that we that received the houses made due search which were priests and which were none, and so made certificate to your Lordship, and your Lordship to the King's Grace, so that by the means their capacities were granted, wherefore I desired him to accept their capacities from the King's Grace with so much favour as the Bishop of Rome's capacities before had been received; for the which there was never search made, but straight obeyed.  He at the last granted that so many as showed my hand should be allowed till that their capacities might come, but there be many that be put out by other commissions that have not my hand, wherefore your Lordship should do a charitable deed to write your letters to the Bishop, that he straight at the sight of your letters might send through his diocese, that all curates might have warning to suffer such poor men that have given up their houses, to sing in their churches, for they all have [had] before, commandment of the Bishop that they shall not suffer them to sing without they show their Letters of the Orders, the which is not possible for them to do..."  [G. Cook, Letters to Cromwell..., (London: Black, 1965), 235].

1557, 19 Feb Thomas Bretton, was a Carmelite of York before the dissolution of the house.  Afterwards, he was appointed rector of Boltby.  He married Ellen Cuthberte and had a number of children.  On 19 Feb 1557, after the accession of Queen Mary, he and his wife were brought before the archbishop of York where Ellen Cuthberte denied that she knew about Bretton's religious vows.  They were divorced.  Ellen was pardoned while Bretton was ordered to do penance in York.  [A. Dickens, Marian Reaction in the Diocese of York, (York: St. Anthony's Hall, 1957), 23].
 PART II B: NOTES ON THE HOUSE AND BUILDINGS

First site: This was in Bootham, near the Horsefair.  [VCH, 291]

Second site: Boundaries were Stonebow Lane on the north, the Foss on the south, Mersk Lane on the west, and Fossgate on the east.  [Pat. 23 Edw. I, m. 3 (sched.); Chart R. 28 Edw. I, m. 4 (printed in Drake, Ebor. App. p. li); Coll. Topog. et Gentile. iv, 128: all in VCH, 292].
  Some details of the site are given in Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 6970, fos. 97-8.  [VCH, 292].
  Note: Mersk Lane is now lost and not to be identified with Hungate: P.N. Yorks E.R. (E.P.N.S.), 294; in the 14th century the site did extend to Hungate on the west.  [VCH II, 361].

  c. 1535-43: Leland recorded about the house that:
  "The White Freres not very far from Laythorpe gate."
  [The Itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535-1543, ed. Lucy Toulmin Smith (London: Centaur, 1964), vol. i, p. 55].

Church:  The friary church stood in the northern part of the precinct, within St. Saviour’s parish.

Gatehouse The entrance to the Carmelite priory was adorned with the shields of Neville and Skirlaw, etc.  [G. Benson, Later Medieval York, (York, 1919), 59].
  The gateway was in Fossgate near its junction with Pavement, and within the parish of St. Crux.  [VCH II, 361].

Seals:  1. common seal  M979
  A defaced fragment apparently as Brit. Mus. 4411 E 322/277  1538
  [CAT PRO. I. page 103].

  2. common seal
  The Virgin with crown seated on a throne, the Child on the left knee, between two saints standing; on the left, an archbishop with mitre, lifting the right hand in benediction, in the left hand a key.  In base, a shield of the arms of England, slung by a strap, upon a bifurcated tree, between two kneeling friars. Field diapered lozengy, with a small leaf in each space.  All within a carved rosette of sixteen points.
  "*SIGILLU COMMUNE . FRATRU ORDIS BEATE . MA[RI]E . MONTE . CARMELI . DON . EBORACV."
  Round       Fourteenth century
  [Brit. Mus. Seals, lxxv, 54. (Rough reproduction in Drake Ebor. (no. xv) referred to in Little, VCH, York, p. 293].

c.1500  There is a manuscript in the College of Arms, marked L8, which belonged to John Wrythe, alias Wriothesley, Garter, who died in died.  The document is partly in his writing and partly in that of his son, who succeeded him as Garter, and died in 1534.  In it, there is an entry on the Carmelites at York:
  "Memorandum quod quinto Idus Januarij ceperunt fratres Carmeliste inhabitare civitatem Eboracum, Anno domini Mo cco. lxxxxvo,  Et anno domini Mo cco xijo in Angliam intraverunt.
   Anno Milleno cco duodeno
   Rolum carmeliste capiunt ad termina vite
   Carmis concessi primus in boria loca Vessy
   Persy firmavit deus huic sibj nos sociabit.
    Cy enfuit les noms des nobles qui sont enterres en leglise des 'diz' freres.
   Et primo Johannes Vavasor armiger
   Item Radulphus Lasselles
   Item dominus Wilielmus Mylles miles
   Item dominus Thomas Malbys miles
   Item domina Isabella uxor ejus
   Item Johannes Nesby armiger
   Item Rybsten armiger
   Item cor domini de Bardolf."
  [Collectanea Topographica & Genealogica, (London: John Bowyer Nichols, 1837), iv, 128].

  With regard the burials in the church:
   “The heart of Sir Bardolf” probably refers to Thomas Bardolf, rebel who was attainted in 1408.

A Latin translation of mag. Walter Hilton's Scale of Perfection, owned by William Pole (Carm.) and made by Thomas Fishlake (Carm..) still survives in York Minster, Dean & Chapter Library, Ms. xvi, K.5.  [H. L. Gardner, in Medium Aevi, v, (1936), 22].

 PART II C: ORDINATIONS IN THE CARMELITE CHURCH, YORK
 

Ordinations were held in the house on the following dates:
[These are taken from the published registers: there will be many other occasions when ordinations were held there which are listed in the other surviving registers which have not yet been published]

  20 Sept 1343 [Reg. le Zouche, York, fo. 4v]
  18 Dec 1344 [ "  fo. 8v]
  12 March 1345 [ "  fo. 10]
  17 Dec 1345 [ "  fo. 13v]
  11 March 1346 [ "  fo. 14]
  10 June 1346 [ "  fo. 15v]
  18 Sept 1350 [ "  fo. 49]
  21 Dec 1370 [Reg. Thoresby, York ]
   1 March 1371 [ "  ]
  18 Dec 1372 [ "  ]
  11 June 1373 [ "  ]
  22 Sept 1375 [Reg. Neville, York, fo. 120v]
  21 Feb 1377 [ "    , fo. 127]
  28 March 1422 [Sede Vacante Reg., York, i, fo. 412]
  14 March 1427 [Reg. Kempe, York,  fo. 228v]
  27 Feb 1428 [  " fo. 231]
  24 Sept 1429 [  " fo. 235]
  10 June 1430 [  " fo. 237v]
  17 March 1431 [  " fo. 239v]
   8 March 1438 [  " fo. 256]
  28 Feb 1439 [  " fo. 258v]
  11 march 1441 [  " fo. 264]
   6 April 1443 [  " fo. 268v]
  12 March 1446 [  " fo. 283v]
  17 Dec 1446 [  " fo. 285v]
  17 Feb 1448 [  " fo. 288]
  21 Sept 1448 [  " fo. 290v]
  26 May 1453 [Reg. W. Bothe, York]
  24 Sept 1457 [ "   ]
  23 Sept 1458 [ "   ]
  22 Sept 1459 [ "   ]
   7 June 1460 [ "   ]
  30 May 1461 [ "   ]
  12 June 1462 [ "   ]
  25 Feb 1464 [ "   ]
  11 March 1468 [Reg. Neville, York, fo. 190]
  24 Sept 1468 [  "   fo. 196]
  23 Dec 1469 [  "   fo. 202v]
  21 Sept 1471 [Sede Vacante Reg., York, fo. 212]
  18 Feb 1475   [Reg. Rotherham, York, (C.Y.S., 1976), i, 26].
  21 Sept 1476 [Reg. L. Bothe, York, fo. 362]
  19 Sept 1478   [Reg. Rotherham, York, (C.Y.S., 1976), i, 213].
  18 Sept 1479 [Sede Vacante Reg., York, fo. 380]
  23 Sept 1480 [Reg. Rotherham, York ]
  22 Sept 1481 [  " ]
  21 Sept 1482 [  " ]
  20 Sept 1483 [  " ]
  18 Sept 1484 [  " ]
  23 Sept 1486 [  " ]
  22 Sept 1487 [  " ]
  20 Sept 1488 [  " ]
  19 Sept 1489 [  " ]
   7 April 1492 [  " ]
  22 Sept 1492 [  " ]
  21 Sept 1493 [  " ]
  22 Feb 1494 [  " ]
  19 Sept 1495 [  " ]
  19 March 1496 [  " ]
  17 Dec 1496 [  " ]
  23 Sept 1497 [  " ]
  21 Sept 1499 [  " ]
  19 Sept 1500 [Sede Vacante Reg., York, fo. 507]
  18 Dec 1501 [Reg. Savage, York,  fo. 110v]
  11 March 1503 [  " fo. 116]
   2 March 1504 [  " fo. 122]
   7 March 1506 [  " fo. 131v]
  27 Feb 1507 [  " fo. 137]
  23 Sept 1508 [Sede Vacante Reg. York, fo. 581]
   2 June 1509 [Reg. Bainbridge, York,  fo. 102v]
  22 Feb 1510 [  " fo. 105v]
  15 March 1511 [  " fo. 111]
  12 March 1513 [  " fo. 123]
  20 Dec 1516 [Reg. Wolsey, York,  fo. 174v]
  19 Sept 1517 [  " fo. 178]
  28 Feb 1523 [  " fo. 198v]
   1 April 1536 [Reg. Lee, York, fo. 196]

Note: The pattern seemed to be that, normally, ordinations were held in
 March in the Holy Trinity Priory
              April in the Grey Friars chapel
              June in the Blackfriars chapel
              Sept in the Whitefriars chapel
              Dec in the Austin Friars chapel.
 

PART II D: KNOWN PRIORS OF THE CARMELITE HOUSE, YORK
 

  George     1269

  William Thorpe    1304

  William Paul    Aug 1322

  William Penterel    Feb 1349

  John de Calby    1362

  William     1371-1378

  Mauger de Baildon   1387-before 1400

  John Bate    1426-9

  Thomas Carlyle    1446-before 1448

  Robert     1473

  H. Thwayet    1490

  John Carter    1527-8

  Simon Clarkson    1535(?)-8
 
 
PART II E: POST-REFORMATION HISTORY OF THE SITE

1538  After the surrender of the friary, it was held by John Thorpe.  [Cal. Pat. 1550-3, 239: VCH II, 361].

1540  A 21-year lease of the property was made to Ralph Beckwith.  The site remained in the hands of this family, at least until the death of Leonard Beckwith in 1614.  [Letters & Papers of Henry VIII, xv, p. 565: VCH II, 361].

Nothing further is known of the site.  In 1958, it was completely built over.

Few traces remain.  In 1850 sections of the precinct wall existed opposite St. Saviour’s Church in Hungate and in Black Horse Passage (off Stonebow Lane).  Fragments of this wall were said to be visible behind the houses in Fossgate and in Stonebow Lane in 1952, but in 1958 the only remaining section was that in Black Horse Passage.  [VCH II, 362].

 

PART III: BIOGRAPHICAL DETAILS OF THE IMPORTANT CARMELITES ASSOCIATED WITH YORK
[This list is limited to those Carmelites associated with York who were of some significance in the province or where there are further details known about their lives.  It excludes the names of those known only from the ordination registers or similar sources, or whose links with York are tenuous]
 
 BEVERLEY (Beverlac, de Beverlaco, Beverlaius, Beverlay), John  He was born in Beverley, near York and joined the Carmelites in York.  [J. Bale, Script. Illustr.  Bryt., (Basle, 1557-9), ii, 84].  He was ordained deacon on 23 Dec 1374.  [Reg. Neville, York, fo. 118v].
 
 He was a batchelor of theology at Oxford by 1392 when he attended the council convened by archbishop Courtenay at Stamford for the trial of fr. Henry Crumpe, O.Cist.  [Fasc. Zizan. ed. W. Shirley, (Rolls Series, 1858), 358].
 
Emden says that there is no evidence whatever for linking him, as in the D.N.B. article, with John Beverley, canon of Beverley, nor with John Beverley, priest, condemned for lollardy and hanged, drawn and quartered at St. Gile's Field, London in 1414.  [Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, (Oxford, 1957-9), 183].

Bale lists his writings as:
1. Questiones Sententiarum, Lib. 4: "Utrum anima separata possit pati."; [Brit. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 174v].
Bale claims that this work was at one time in the library of Queen’s College, Oxford.  [J. Bale, Index Brit. Script., 182].
2. Ordinariae disputationes, Lib. 1.  [J. Bale, Script. Illustr. Bryt., ii, 84].
 
 Bibliography

1. Bale, J., Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 57v (extract from Fasc. Zizan.);
2. Bale, J., Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 174v:
3. Bale, J., Illustrium Maioris Britanniae ... Summarium, (Wesels, 1548), fo. 47:
4. Bale, J., Script. Illustr. Bryt., (Basle, 1557-9), ii, 84;
5. Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, (Oxford, 1957-9), 183:
6. Fasciculi Zizaniorum, ed. W. Shirley, (Rolls Series, 1858), 358:
7. Pits, John, De Rebus Anglicis, (Paris, 1619), 555:
8. Tanner, Tho., Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica (London, 1748), 99:
9. Villers, C., Bib. Carm., (Orléans, 1752. repr. Rome, 1927), i, 797;
10. Westby-Gibson, J., Dict. Nat. Biog., (London, 1885-), iv, 449-50:
 
 BEVERLEY, (de Anglia) Richard  At the General Chapter held in Verona in 1381, he was given 5 ducats for his baccalareus.  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., ed. G. Wessels, (Rome, 1912), i, 91].  Zimmerman notes that, in 1385, he was sent to study in Vienna.  In 1393, he was lector and prior in Brussels.  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., i, 106n].
 
 At the General Chapter held in Frankfurt from 25 May 1393, he was appointed provincial of the Gascony province.  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., i, 106].
 
 CARLISLE, (Carlele) Thomas  His name, 'Brother Carlele', occurs in the will of John Staynhum, draper, dated 19 June 1438 when he was left a bequest of 6s. 8d.  [Borthwick Institute, P.R.3 525V: noted by Mrs. Tessa Frank].
 
 He joined the Corpus Christi Guild in York in 1445.  [Reg. Guild of Corpus Christi, (Surtees Soc., 1872), ]. In 1446, he was prior of York when he represented the York distinction at discussions on the reform of the order.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 1819, fo. 200v].  He had vacated the office of prior by 1448 when Pope Nicholas V confirmed the grant made to him, "a friar of York, by John, master general of the Order (with the unanimous consent of the chapter of the order then held in Asti) and the prior and friars of the said house, of certain privileges, etc.  contained more fully in letters bearing the seals of the said John and prior and convent which letters the pope has caused to be inspected".  This was not dated but some time between 19 March 1448 and 18 March 1449.  [C.P.L., x, 1447-1455, page?].

 CARTER, (Cartier) John  He was prior of York in 1527-8 when he was listed in the accounts of the Earl of Northumberland as receiving an annuity from the king.
  (From Michaelmas 13 Henry VIII to Michaelmas 14 Henry VIII) "To John Carter, prior of the White Friars, York, annuity of 40s."
  (From Michaelmas 14 Henry VIII) "To friar John Cartier, prior of the White Friars, York, 40s."
   [L. & P. Henry VIII, ed. J. Brewer, (London: Longmans, 1872), iv, (2), 1533].
 
 CLERKSON (Clarkesun, Clarkson, Claxon), Simon  Carmelite of Oxford who was ordained subdeacon on 11 March 1525.  [Reg. Longland, Lincoln, xxvi, fo. 17: Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, 1501-1540 A.D., (Oxford, 1974), 120].
 
 He evidently commenced his studies at Oxford university in 1524 because, on 2 Jan 1533, after 9 years of study in logic, philosophy and theology, he supplicated for a B.Th.  [Reg. Univ. Oxford, ed. C. Boase & A. Clark, (Oxford Hist. Soc., 1885), i, 173: O.U. Arch., Reg. H., fo. 279 (where he is entered as a Franciscan)].
 
 He was prior of York by 1537-8.  [P.R.O., Conventual Leases, Yorks., no. 909; in A. Little, Hist. of Yorks., (V.C.H., 1913), iii, 293].  It is possible that he was the prior who was commissioned by the Corporation of York to give a sermon on Corpus Christi morrow, 1535.  [Palliser, D.M., The Reformation in York 1534-1553, (York: St. Anthony's Press, 1971), 2].  In July 1537, together with the Carmelite prior of London, probably John Gybbes (Carm.), he assisted Bishop Longland in the examination of the heretic, William Cowbridge, at Wycombe.  [Letters & Papers, Henry VIII, xiii, i, 1434].
 
 He was prior of York at the dissolution on 27 Nov 1538 and signed the surrender.  He was given £1 from the sale of the property.  [Eighth Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, (London, 1842), appendix ii, 51; Letters & Papers, Henry VIII, xiv (2), 3380 (1), (9)].
 
 On 17 July 1539, he was presented to the vicarage of Rotherham by Francis, Earl of Shrewsbury, a benefice which he held for fifteen years.  On 3 Oct 1541, Henry VIII, during a royal visit to Hull, gave him a special licence for the sake of his preaching, because he was a B.D. and excellent in sacred learning, to absent himself from the vicarage of Rotherham for the next ten years.  This licence was issued formally under the Privy Seal on 27 Oct 1541.  During this absence, he was allowed to draw the profits from the vicarage, provided that funerals are held, the cure of souls is not neglected and that he preaches in Rotherham once a quarter.  [T. Rymer, Foedera, (  ), xiv, 736: J. Guest, Hist. Notices of Rotherham, (  ), 73-4: Letters & Papers Henry VIII, xvi, 1308, 38: Fasti Paroch., (Yorks. Archaeol. Soc. Rec. Series), ii, 42-3].
 
 Vicar of Crowle, Lincs. compounded 4 Nov 1541.  [P.R.O., E334/2, fo. 64].  On 10 March 1548, he was presented to the benefice of Stainby, South Lincolnshire.  [Lincoln Diocesan Records, P.D. 1548/16].  Three years later, he exhibited a plurality licence at the Lincoln episcopal visitation.  [ibid., Vj. 13, fo. 65].  He was vicar of Hatfield, Yorks. but had vacated this parish by June 1549.  Fasti Paroch., i, 134].  He was presented as vicar of Doncaster, Yorks., on 12 Sept 1554 but was not instituted.  [C.P.R. 1554-5, 202: J. Hunter, South Yorkshire, i, 36].
 
 He was married by the end of the reign of Edward VI.  In Queen Mary's reign, he was summoned to appear at York on 16 April and again on 29 Oct 1554.  He proved completely contumacious and was deprived of the vicarage of Rotherham.  On this occasion, letters testimonial under the seal of the archdeacon were produced in court; these probably reported that he had been deprived of Stainby.  (On 5 Oct, another cleric had been admitted to Stainby which lay vacant by deprivation).  [ibid., Reg. 28, fo. 110].  Possibly, he emigrated.

 Bibliography

1. Dickens, A., Lollards and Protestants in the diocese of York, (O.U.P., 1959), 145-7:
2. Dickens, A., The Marian Reaction in the Diocese of York, (York: St. Anthony's Hall, 1957), 23:
3. Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, 1501-1540 A.D., (Oxford, 1974), 123.
 
 ESINGTON, (Esyngton) Richard  Ordained accolyte on 20 Sept 1376 in St. Leonard's hospital, York.  [Reg. Neville, York, fo. 125v].
 
 Listed as sacre pagine professor, i.e. D.Th., when, on 18 Aug 1402, he was granted permission to preach, hear confessions and impose penance on the confessed in the diocese of York.  [Reg. Scrope, York, (Borthwick Inst. 1986), ii, 13].  Emden suggests that it is likely that he studied for a period at Oxford.  [Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, (Oxford, 1957-9), 2173].

 ESK, Thomas  Ordained accolyte on 20 Sept 1376 and subdeacon on 19 Dec 1377, both occasions in St. Leonard's hospital, York.  [Reg. Neville, York, fos. 125, 130v].
 
 On 8 Aug 1400, he was granted permission to preach and hear confessions in the diocese of York.  [Reg. Scrope, York, (Borthwick Inst., 1981), ii, 12].
 
 GREEN, (Grene, Grone, Groue, Grove, Groye) John  Carmelite of the diocese of Exeter, probably from the Plymouth house.  He was of gentle birth.  [Cal. Papal Letters, (London, ), x, 139].
 
 He studied at the London house and was ordained accolyte on 21 Dec. 1415, subdeacon on 18 April 1416, deacon on 6 March 1417 and priest on 21 May 1417, all occasions in St. Paul's cathedral, London.  [Reg. Clifford, London, fos. 75, (76v): Reg. Chichele, Canterbury, (C.Y.S., 1943), iv, 324: Reg. Clifford, London, fo. 82v].  Green attended Oxford university and was a D.Th. by 1446 when he attended the meeting called to reform the province.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 1819, fo. 200v].
 
 On 29 March 1447, he was appointed bishop of Kilfenora (Insulensis) by papal provision and remained bishop until his death.  [C. Eubel, Hierarchia Cath. Medii et Recent. Aevi, (Regensburg, 19  ), ii, 170].  Other authorities do not list this appointment and it is more likely that he was one of the English bishops appointed to the Isles but not recognised in Scotland.  [Handbook Brit. Chron., (Royal Hist. Soc., 1986), 358].
 
 On 31 Jan 1452 he was allowed to hold a benefice for life by Pope Nicholas V because he was of gentle birth and "has laboured for 20 years in preaching and other works for the salvation of souls at his own petition and of John, earl of Shrewsbury." [Cal. Papal Letters, (London, 19 ), x, 1447-1455, 139].
 
 Vicar of Rattery, Devon, admitted 27 Nov. 1455. [Reg. Bourgchier, Canterbury, (C.Y.S., 1957), 228].; vicar of Godmanchester, Hunts, admitted 20 March 1457 but had vacated this cure by March 1460. [Reg. Chedworth, Lincoln, xx, fos. 300v, 305v].  On 30 June 1458, he was granted a papal dispensation, on account of his inability to obtain peaceful possession of his see, to hold an additional incompatible benefice.  [Cal. Papal Letters, xi, 181].  Rector of Stowe-Nine-Churches, Northants, admitted 21 March 1460 but had vacated this cure by March 1464.  [Reg. Chedworth, Lincoln, fo. 181; Bridges, i, 90].  Vicar of Blyth, Notts., a parish which he had vacated by April 1462.  [Reg. Booth, York, (Borthwick Inst., ), , xx, fo. 96v].  Admitted as Master of St. John the Baptist Hospital, Ripon, Yorks. on 26 Feb 1463.  [Reg. Booth, York, , xx, fo. 55v].  Vicar of Birstall, Yorks., collated 1463.  [Reg. Booth, York, xx, fo. 22].  Rector of Mersham, Kent, collated 13 Dec 1464.  [Reg. Bourgchier, Canterbury, 276].  Rector of Clifton, Notts., till his death.  [Reg. Neville, York, xxii, fo. 95].
 
 Assistant bishop to William Booth, archbishop of York, in 1460 and 1462.  [Memorials of the Church of SS. Peter & Wilfrid, Ripon, ed. J. Fowler, (Surtees Society, 1882), ii, 11: where Emden claims he is inaccurately designated 'bp. of the Isles' but see above].  He had died by August 1467.
 
 Note: Emden separates the above into two individuals, John Grene and John Grove but it is clear that the references relate to one person.  [Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, (Oxford, 1957-9), 2178, 2179].  Also, see note under Gaber (Carm.) and possible identification.
 
 HAROLD, (Harald) John  Carmelite of York who was killed in the York house in 1374 by fr. John Wy (Carm.).  [Pat. 10 Richard II, pt. ii, m. 37; in A. Little, Hist. of Yorks., (V.C.H., 1913), iii, 292].
 
HESHAM (Heseham, Heselam) William  A Carmelite, who probably joined the Order at York and later studied at Oxford university where he was awarded a doctorate.  There exist the title and incipits of two sermons preached by Thomas Netter at the vesperies of “William Hesham and John Upton”
1. Collacionem benediccionis in vesperijs magistrorum Wilhelmi Hesham et Johannis Upton Carmelitarum:  "Benediccionem perhibere non valeo, Numeri .23o.  Domini mei beatus Ambrosius .lio. primo.  Abraham senset eum ter benediccionis frugem a Domino Deo precepisse de celis.":
2. Collacionem commendacionis in vesperijs eorumdem: "Date gloriam laudi primo 65o. Nostis domini mei quum intemerata consuetudo universitatis matris nostre."
 These must have taken place at Oxford University sometime before 1430.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 204v].
 
 In the will of William Barton, fishmonger, dated 22 Aug 1438, there occurs a bequest of 3s.4d. to 'Doctor William Heseham of the Carmelite house in York'.  [Borthwick Inst. Hist. Research, Prob. Reg., 536V: information from Ms. Tessa Frank].
 
 A second bequest occurs in the will of Thomas Clynt, merchant, dated 9 April 1439 of 6s.8d. to 'Master Heselam, Carmelite'.  [Borthwick Inst. Hist. Research, Prob. Reg. 3, 567V: information from Ms. Tessa Frank].

HIGGS, (Hixus) James  He was listed as of the York diocese when, on 20 March 1536, he was granted a dispensation to wear the habit of his order beneath that of a secular priest for a fee of £4.  [D. Chambers, Reg. Fac. Off., (Oxford, 1966), 48].

Bale lists him as one of those who: "...sua Babilone cum suis papisticis decretis relinquerunt.."  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 195v].
 
 HOUEDAN, William   Carmelite of York when he joined the Corpus Christi guild in York in 1430-1.  [Reg. Guild of Corpus Christi in the city of York, (Surtees Soc., 1872), 31].

 HUNTPLESE(?), Richard  Carmelite of York when he joined the Corpus Christi guild 1442-3.  [Reg. Guild of Corpus Christi in the city of York, (Surtees Soc., 1872), 42].

JOHNSON, (Jonson) James  Carmelite of York when he signed the surrender document for the house on 27 Nov 1538.  [Eighth Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, (London, 1842), appendix ii, 51].  Possibly the same as the person who became vicar of St. Lawrence, York, from before 1558 until 1582.  [Reformation: Principle and Practice, essays in honour of A. G. Dickens, ed. Peter Newman Brooks, (London: Scolar Press, 1980), p. 212]

KELLAWE (Chellavus, Kelhowe, Kellaue, Kellauus, Kellaw, Kellawensis, Kello), Walter Bale’s earliest notes record simply that he was a member of the York distinction.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 168].  Later, Bale, basing himself on Leland, claims that Kellawe was born in Northallerton, Yorkshire.  [Bale, J., Scriptorum Illustr. Brytan., ii, 59].  He probably joined the Carmelites in York, not Northallerton as claimed by some (the house was only founded in 1356).

Kellawe studied at Oxford university where he had incepted as D.Th. by 19 Feb 1348 for he was described as magister when he was licensed to hear confessions in the York diocese.  He was licensed again on 16 Feb 1353.  [Reg. la Zouche, York, x, fo. 278: Reg. Thoresby, York, xi, fo. 3v].  He was the confessor of Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury, (d.1460) and his wife Alice, (m. 1421: d.1462) daughter of Thomas Montague, the previous earl.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 76].

Kellawe was appointed provincial at the General Chapter held in Metz in June 1348.  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., (Rome, 1912), i, 40].  His appointment was confirmed at the provincial chapter held in Nottingham later the same year.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 80].  He was re-appointed at the General Chapter held in Toulouse in June 1351.  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., (Rome, 1912), i, 42].  During his term of office, Kellawe held provincial chapters at Lynne in 1349, London in 1350, Cambridge in 1351 and Lincoln in 1352. [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 80v].

On 8 Aug 1352, he was summoned to attend a consultation with the king:
 "To the provincial prior of the Carmelites in England to be before the council on Thursday after the octaves of the Assumption next."  [Cal. Close Rolls, 1349-1354, (London: HMSO, 1906), 499].

kellawe resigned at the chapter in Norwich in 1353.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 80v].  But, due to the illness of his successor, William Lubbenham (Carm.), Kellawe was re-elected provincial at the chapter held in Maldon in 1354 and he vacated the office for the second time in 1359.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 80v].  His appointment as provincial was confirmed at the General Chapters held in Perpignan in June 1354 and in Ferrara in 1357.  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., ed. G.  Wessels, (Rome, 1912), i, 44, 46].  In his second term, he held provincial chapters at Maldon in 1354, Stamford in 1355, Lynne in 1356, Nottingham in 1357 and Ipswich in 1358.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fos. 80-80v].

On 8 Nov 1356, he is mentioned in a document by which the king gave the Carmelites a croft called Tentour Croft, with an adjacent meadow, containing in all 3 acres and one rod at Northallerton for the foundation of a Carmelite house.  [Pat. 30 Edw. I, pt. i, m. 11; pt. iii, m. 19; in A. Little, Hist. of Yorks., (V.C.H., 1913), iii, 270].  The Neville family, to which Kellawe was confessor, were noted benefactors to Northallerton and often chose to be buried there.  Kellawe’s name as provincial occurs also on 18 Oct 1358 when the bishop of Hereford granted permission for four Carmelites from Ludlow to hear confessions.  [Reg. Charlton, Hereford, 62].

After handing over his office as provincial in 1359, Kellaw appears to have retired to the new Carmelite foundation at Northallerton.  Ingledew suggests that he may have been the first prior of Northallerton which is unlikely as he was provincial when Northallerton was founded (1356-7). [Cole's Ms.; quoted in C. Ingledew, Hist. & Antiq. of Northallerton (1858), 245].  It is quite possible he was the second prior (from 1359).  He died and was buried in Northallerton in Aug 1367.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 168].

His name ‘Kellaw’ occurs in a book recorded in the catalogue of the Carmelite library at Hulne.  [K. Humphreys, The Friars’ Libraries, (British Library, 1990), 175].

Note:  Some authors have attempted to identify Walter Kellaw with other Carmelites.  Villiers confuses him with Walter Heston (Carm.) and hence makes Heston provincial in the 1350’s.  Staring attempts to correct the situation by reversing the process and identifying Heston with Kellaw.  Both are clearly mistaken as Heston is a separate individual in the contemporary records (see entry for Walter Heston). [Bib. Carm., i, 579: "Walter Heston", Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographique Ecclesiastique, (Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1991), xxiv, 293 (unsigned by inserted by Staring)].  Another confusion is between Walter Kellaw and an earlier Carmelite,Walter Kesso (Carm), who occurs in the Bruges necrology.  However, chronologically, they must be separate individuals, (See entry for Walter Kesso).  [Norbert a St. Julian, O.Carm., De scriptoribus Belgicis et viris illustribus ex ordine Carmelitarum, Brussels, Royal Library, Ms. 16492, p. xxii-xxv].

Bale ascribes the following works to him:
1. Determinaciones quasdam theologicas, Lib. 1; [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 118v].
2. Quodlibeta quoque, Lib. 1; [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 76].
 Bale adds:
3. "Atque sermones aliquot."  [J. Bale, Script. Illustr. Bryt., ii, 59].
Which Villiers completes into a further work: Sermonum variorum, Lib 1.  [Bib. Carm., i, 581].

 Bibliography

1. Bale, J., Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, (S.C. 27635), fos. 80-80v, 118v, 133v:
2. Bale, J., Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 168:
3. Bale, J., Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fos. 31v, 43v, 76-76v, 180:
4. Bale, J., Script. Illustr. Bryt., (Basle, 1557-9), ii, 59;
5. Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, (Oxford, 1957-9), 1029:
6. "Kellawe ou Kello, Walter" Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique, (Paris, 1903-50), viii, 2333:
7. Leland, John, Commentarii de Scriptoribus Britannicis, ed. Anthony Hall, (Oxford: Sheldonian, 1709), 368:
8. Norbert a St. Julian, O.Carm., De scriptoribus Belgicis et viris illustribus ex ordine Carmelitarum, Brussels, Royal Library, Ms. 16492, p. xxii-xxv:
9. Pits, John, De Rebus Anglicis, (Paris, 1619), 501:
10. [Staring, Adrian, O.Carm.], "Walter Heston", Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographique Ecclesiastique, (Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1991), xxiv, 293: (for confusion with Kellaw)
11. Tanner, Tho., Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica (London, 1748), 451:
12. Villers, Bib. Carm. (Orléans, 1752. repr. Rome, 1927), i, 579 (Heston), i, 581 (Kellaw);
 
 KYNYNGHAM (Chinigum, Chiningam, Chuningam, Cuningamus, Cuningham, Cunningham, Hinnigera, Hinnighera, Keningham, Kenningham, Kenyngham, Kilinghamus, Killingham, Kiningham, Kinningham, Kyningham, Kinyngamus, Kylingham, Kylinguam, Kyllyngham, Kylynghal, Kylyngham -us, Kyningam, Kyningham, Kynnyngham, Kynynghamus, Kynyngton, Quinimguam), John  Born in Suffolk, he joined the Carmelites in Ipswich.  In one of his surviving works, it is mentioned that his father died while he was a boy.  [A. Hudson, New DNB].  He undertook his studies at Oxford university.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 175v: Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 85].
 
 Kynyngham was one of the first to argue against Wyclif and was involved in disputes with the Lollards from 1363.  [Robson, J. A., Wyclif and the Oxford School, (Cambridge, 1961), 162-170].  He wrote an Ingressus and three Determinationes against Wyclif’s ideas, sometime after Wyclif had become a doctor, c. 1363.  These works have survived and have been edited, see Fasciculi Zizaniorum, ed. W. Shirley, (Rolls Series, 1858), 3-103].  As the Ingessus entitles Kynyngham as frater and the Determinationes as magister, it would seem likely that Kynyngham received his doctorate while he was engaged in this controversy, i.e. between 1365-1372. Crompton dates the Determinationes, c.1370 and Huson to c. 1372-3.  [James Crompton, “Fasciculi Zizaniorum” Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 12 (1961), 163: A. Hudson, New DNB].
 
 He had certainly achieved his doctorate by 1375, for he was described as “magister Johanne Quinimguam”, when he was present as a definitor for the English province at the General Chapter held in Le-Puy-en-Velay in that year.  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., i, 71].
 
 He was present at the council held at Blackfriars in London on 17 May, 18 June & 20 June 1382 which condemned 24 propositions of Wyclif and Kynyngham preached the concluding sermon afterwards, probably at St. Paul's Cross.  [Fasc. Zizan., ed. W. Shirley, (Rolls Series, 1858), 286: Wilkins, D., Concilia, (London, 1737) iii, 158, 160, 164-5: Chronicon Henrici Knighton vel Cnitthow monachi Leycestrensis, ed. J. R. Lumby (London: Rolls Series, 1895), ii, 163].
 
 Kynyngham was present at the trial of Henry Crumpe, O.Cist., at Stamford on 28 May 1392.  [Fasc. Zizan., ed. W. Shirley, (Rolls Series, 1858), 347].  He preached before the king on All Saints Day, 1 Nov. 1392.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Add. 35115, fo. 33].
 
 Bale notes that he was confessor and secretary to John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster.  Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 119]  Certainly, his name occurs in Gaunt’s accounts as confessor in 1392-3.  [P.R.O. (Duchy of Lancaster Various Accounts) DL 28/3/2: in Goodman, Anthony, John of Gaunt, (Longman, 1992), 247].  At various times in 1392 and probably at other occasions in the early 1390's, Kynyngham was resident in the ducal household.  [East Sussex Record Office, Waleys cartulary A1, A2, A6, A9, B4, B9: in Goodman op. cit., 266 n32].
 
 He was elected provincial at the provincial chapter held at Yarmouth in 1393.  [Brit. Lib., Ms. Harley 3838, 32v].  This appointment was confirmed at the General Chapter held in Frankfurt from the 25 May the same year where he was listed as provincial of England and as definitor representing the province of Upper Germany due to the absence of any representative from this province (due to the papal schism).  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., i, 106].  Kynyngham's appointment was confirmed once more at the General Chapter held in Piacenza in 1396.  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., i, 116].
 
 He was still acting as confessor to John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, in 1397-8.  [P.R.O. (Duchy of Lancaster Various Accounts) DL 28/3/5: in Goodman, Anthony, John of Gaunt, (Longman, 1992), 247].  His name occurs as one of the witnesses to the will of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, on 3 Feb. 1398: "...fratre Johanne Kyningham in theologi professore..."  [Sydney Armitage-Smith, John of Gaunt, (Westminster: Cape, 1904), 432].
 
 He was summoned by Richard II to attend a council convened to meet at Oxford on 27 Jan 1399 to advise the king concerning the papal schism.  [Cal. Close Rolls, 1396-1399, (London: HMSO, 1927), 367-8].
 
 His appointment as provincial was again confirmed on 18 May 1399, at the General Chapter held in Le Selve, Tuscany: however, he had already died at York a few days earlier on the 12th May.  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., i, 122: Bodl. Libr. Bodley Ms. 73, fo. 42v:].  At the same General Chapter in Le Selve, Tuscany, it was decreed that he should be vicar provincial of Ireland.  He was to provide for the election of a provincial for Ireland by the members of the province or by other means if he deemed it wise.  [Acta Capit. Gen. Ord. Carm., i, 122].  O’Dwyer, quoting an unpublished Irish source, states that Bale claimed that Kynyngham was about 76 years old when he died.  [O’Dwyer, Irish Carmelites, 54 n. 242].  So far, this reference is untraced in Bale’s writings.
 
 Bale describes him as:
  "This venerable father was greatly respected for his learning, exemplary conduct, gentleness, as well as for his friendly nature and humility"
 [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fos. 32v].

The following works by Kynyngham date from his confrontation with Wyclef :
1. Ingressus fr. Johannis Kynyngham Carmelitae contra Wicclyff, Lib. 1: "In isto actu, intendo duo facere: primo persuadebo quedam superius dicta.";  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 196v]
  This works exists in two copies:
  a. Bodl. Libr., Ms. E Mus. 86, fos. ...
  b. Camb. Univ., Corpus Christi College Ms. CIII, fos. ...
  The work has been printed in Fasciculus Zizaniorum, (ed.) W. W. Shirley, (London: Rolls Series, 1858), 4-13;
2. Acta magistri fratris Johannis Kenyngham Carmelitae contra ideas magistri Johannis Wycliff, Lib. 1: "Reverendus magister Johannes Wycleff in responsione sua ad quaedam exilia argumenta quae feceram, dicit se.";  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 196v].
  This works exists in two copies:
  a. Bodl. Libr., Ms. E Mus. 86, fos. .....
  b. Camb. Univ., Corpus Christi College Ms. CIII, fos......
  The work has been printed in Fasciculus Zizaniorum, (ed.) W. W. Shirley, (London: Rolls Series, 1858), 14-42.
  It was written in response to Wycliff's Determinacio, edited by Shirley in the same work, pp. 453-476.  Wycliff's subsequent reply is given also 477-480.
3. Determinacione magistri fratris Johannis Kynyngham de ampliacione temporis, Lib. 1: "In materia sepe tacta de ampliacione temporis inter reverendum magistrum.";  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 196v].
  This works exists in two copies:
  a. Bodl. Libr., Ms. E Mus. 86, fos. .....
  b. Camb. Univ., Corpus Christi College Ms. CIII, fos......
  The work has been printed in Fasciculus Zizaniorum, (ed.) W. W. Shirley, (London: Rolls Series, 1858), 43-72;
4. Tertia determinatio Kynyngham contra Wycclyff.  De esse intelligibili creaturae, Lib. 1: "Habito frequenter multiplici tractatu de esse creaturae inter reverendummagistrum meum.";  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 196v].
  This works exists in two copies:
  a. Bodl. Libr., Ms. E Mus. 86, fos.
  b. Camb. Univ., Corpus Christi College Ms. CIII, fos.
  The work has been printed in Fasciculus Zizaniorum, (ed.) W. W. Shirley, (London: Rolls Series, 1858), 73-104:
 Bale adds a further title: Ad auctoritates responsio contra eundem, Lib. 1: "Iam restat dicere ad auctoritates que pro istis tribus argumentis adducte sunt.";  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 196v].  But this work is actually the latter part of the above Determinacio.  [Fasc. Zizan., 80]
5. In nugas Wyckleffi, Lib. 1: "Ut ait Cassiodorus in libro de ra.";
 It is difficult to know whether this is a lost work written against Wyclif or a confusion with Kynyngham’s Ingressu (1 above).  From its place in some of Bale’s lists, it seems more likely to be a duplication - possibly from the second part of Kynyngham Ingressu, which lacks its opening part in the ms. and this would explain the different incipit.  Elsewhere it is entitled Contra propositiones Wiclevi.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 85v].
 
 Bale adds the following works by Kynyngham:
6. Lecturam Sententiarum, Lib. 4: "Mirabilis facta est scientia tua."; [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 175v: Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 85v].
7. Commentarios Metaphysices, Lib. 12; [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 85v].
8. In libros Threnos Hieremie, Lib. 1: "Vide Domine afflictionem meam.  Capitulo primo.  Refert Seneca in declarationibus suis, libro 8o...";  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 40v].
9. In Ezechielem, Lib. 1: "Iste liber, sicut et alij scriptu."; [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 175v: Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 85v]
10. Lecturam super epistolas Jacobi, Lib. 2: "Jacobus Dei et domini nostri Jesu Christi suus.  Circa hanc epistolam sicut et in aliis libris...";  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 40v].
11. Scripture praeconia, Lib. 1: "In medio annorum notum facies.";  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 85v]
12. De natura Angelica, Lib. 1: "Secundum quod superius tactum est."; [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 175v: Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 85v]
13. De nativitate Christi, Lib. 1: "Veritas de terra orta est, &c."; [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 85v]
14. De passione Christi, Lib. 1: "In pace morieris, Hieremiae  34."; [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 85v]
15. De Spiritu Sancto, Lib. 1: "Spiritus Sanctus dabat eloqui illis."; [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 85v]
16. Sermones de tempore, Lib. 1: "Dabo tibi coronam vite, Apoc. 2.";
17. Sermones de sanctis, Lib. 1: "Hoc est corpus meum, Matth. 26."  Karissimi sicut dicit Rabanus si quis non vescitur Dei verbo ille non vivit quia sicut corporis.”; [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 205].
 These two works begin in Bale’s notes as one single composition but then he separates them into two with individual incipits.  Bale comments that he had read three of these sermons. [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 205].
18. Questiones varie disputatas, Lib. 1.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 119]
 Elsewhere, Determinaciones varias.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 175v].
 “Varia insuper in biblie libros glossemata edidisse perhibetur, que michi cognita non sunt.”
 [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 85v].
 
 In the British Library, there is a commentary on Ecclesiasticus, ascribed at the start to “Kyngisham”.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Royal 2 D.iv]   However, Hudson asserts that there is no reason for linking this with Kynyngham.  [Hudson, A., New DNB].

 Bibliography

1. Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., ed. G. Wessels, (Rome, 1912), i, 71n, 106, 116, 122:
2. Armitage-Smith, S., John of Gaunt, (  ), 172, 182
3. Bale, J., Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 40v, 42v, 56, 56v-57, 57v, 81, 119, 133v, 196v, 205:
4. Bale, J., Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 1819, fo. 197v:
5. Bale, J., Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 175v:
6. Bale, J., Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fos. 32v-33, 43v, 85-85v, 183v, 192:
7. Bale, J., Illustrium Maioris Britanniae ... Summarium, (Wesel, 1548), 158-158v:
8. Bale, J., Script. Illustr. Bryt... Catalogus, (Basle, 1557-9), i, 457-8:
9. Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, (Oxford, 1957-9), 1077:
10. Fasciculi Zizaniorum, ed. W.W. Shirley, (Rolls Series, 1858), 286, 347:
11. Goodman, Anthony, John of Gaunt: the exercise of princely power in fourteenth-century Europe, (Harlow: Longman, 1992), 247-8, 266 n32:
12. Kingsford, C., Dict. Nat. Biog., (London, 1885-), xxxi, 361-2:
13. Leland, John, Commentarii de Scriptoribus Britannicis, ed. Anthony Hall, (Oxford: Sheldonian, 1709), 386:
14. Lohr, Charles, S.J., "Medieval Latin Aristotle commentaries", Traditio, (1971), xxvii, 254:
15. Matias del Niño Jesus, O.C.D., "El Carmelo Frente a la Falsa Reforma", Revista de Espiritualidad, (Jan.-Jun. 1946), v, no. 18, 306:
16. McCaffrey, P., O.Carm., White Friars, (Dublin, 1926), 226, 238:
17. Pits, John, De Rebus Anglicis, (Paris, 1619), 564-5:
18. Robson, J. A., Wyclif and the Oxford School, (Cambridge, 1961), 162-170:
19. Tanner, Tho., Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica (London, 1748), 213:
20. Villiers, Cosmas, O.Carm., Bib. Carm. (Orléans, 1727. repr. Rome, 1927), ii, 21-3 (also ii, 9):
21. Wilkins, David, Concilia Magnae Britanniae et Hiberniae, (London, 1737. repr. Brussels, 1964), iii, 158:
22. Zimmerman, Benedict, O.C.D., "The White Friars at Ipswich", Proc. Suffolk Inst. of Archaeol. & Nat. Hist., (1899), x, 202:
23. Zimmerman, Benedict, O.C.D., Mon. Hist. Carm., (Lérins, 1907), i, 355.
 
LANDUCCI, (of Siena) Bernardine  Born in Siena, he studied theology at Paris university 1478-80  [Acta Capit. Gen. Ord. Carm., ed. G. Wessels, (Rome, 1912), i, 272].  By 1492, he had been awarded a doctorate.  [Acta Capit., i, 296].

He taught philosophy at Siena and was provincial of Tuscany by 1498.  [Acta Capit., i, 305]  In 1503, he was appointed Procurator General by the Prior General, Peter Terrasse.  [Acta Capit., i, 317, 328, 342].  After the death of Terrasse in 1511, he was appointed Vicar General.  [Bullarium Carmelitarum, (Rome, 1715), i, 446, 448]

In 1513, at the General Chapter held in Rome, after the election of Baptist of Mantua as Prior General, Landucci was appointed provincial of the Romam province and Procurator General.  Finally, at the General Chapter held in Siena on 31 May 1517 he was elected Prior General.  [Smet, J. The Carmelites, (Illinois, 1975. rev. 1988), i, 112].

In 1522, whilst Prior General, Landucci visited England and presided over the Provincial Chapter held in York at which John Bird was elected provincial.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 41]

He died in Rome on 28 March 1523 and was buried in St. Maria Transpontina.  [Mon. Hist. Carm., ed. B. Zimmerman, (Lérins, 1907), i, 262]

Landucci wrote:
1. De B.V. Mariae laudibus Tractatum;
2. De sensu composito et diviso  (published in Venice, 1500)
 [C. Villiers, Bib. Carm., i, 269: J. Smet, The Carmelites, (Illinois, 1975), i, 130]

 Bibliography

1. Smet, J. The Carmelites, (Illinois, 1975. rev. 1988), i, 111-3]
2. Villiers, C., Bib. Carm., (Orléans, 1752. repr. 1927), i, 267-9:
3. Zimmerman, B.,  Mon. Hist. Carm., (Lérins, 1907), i, 262:
 
 LASYNGE, (Leysyng) John  Carmelite from Doncaster who studied at Cambridge university where he was awarded D.Th.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 200].  In one of his notebooks, Bale records that magister Lasynge flourished c.1448.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 1819, fo. 200v].
 
 There is an episode in one of Thomas Netter’s (Carm.) letters to John Bate (Carm.) the prior of York and the brethren there which probably refers to Lasynge.  The letter can be dated to c. March-April, 1427:
 “An almost common complaint from the fathers reached me the other day about the words which brother John Leysyng used in his sermon on the Feast of the Purification in our house at Doncaster which were to the detriment of the parish church.  He said that the gifts for the feast might be offered licitly in churches other than the parish church, just as votive offerings are, according to the will of the person making the gift.  I regret that my son has sinned in this matter.  I pass over in silence what the laws of the church say against these words, what the holy customs lay down with equal force, by virtue of their longevity.  But I am surprised that our son did not turn his attention to the gospel of the feast about which a multitude of doctors write that the blessed Virgin passed by the synagogue at Bethlehem by order of Him whom she had borne and went to the greater temple, that the fame of the place might correspond to the magnitude of the vow of the one offering......I refrain from quoting scripture in order not to be found quarrelsome towards my son.  And to settle the question I want our son to make amends to the place which he harmed by speaking out clearly and unambiguously, with the agreement of the venerable Lord Abbot and the prior of our house at York.  Our son should have foreseen and avoided this peril all the more cautiously since he has recently heard of the statute passed at our chapter, recently celebrated at Oxford against those who preach to the prejudice of prelates.”
 [Brit. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 101v-102].
 Note: It is strange that the prior of Doncaster is not referred to and it is possible was Lasynge was prior himself.  This which would explain the reason for Netter calling on the prior of York to intervene.  Certainly Lasynge was prior at some time in Doncaster.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 200].
 
 Bale describes him as:
 "He was outstanding learned in the holy scriptures and human literature, he stood out for his ability and eloquence, and not the less for his honest conversation than for his respected learning.  He served the cardinal priest of Saint Balbinus then archbishop of York and (as was said) was his confessor."
 [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 200].  Note: This reference must be to cardinal John Kempe who was archbishop of York from 1425-1452 before transferring to the see of Canterbury.
 
 Bale claims that he died in 1412 but this date is a mistake and Lasynge must have died some time c.1450.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 200].

Bale records that he wrote:
1. Determinaciones theologie, Lib. 1:
2. Lecturas in scripturam plures, Lib. 1:
3. Collationes ad clerum et vulgum, Lib. 1:
 "Et alia quedam"
 [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 200]

 Bibliography

1. Bale, J., Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 1819, fo. 200v:
2. Bale, J., Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 200:
3. Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Camb., (Cambridge, 1963), 354.
 
 LEONARD, (Leonarde) Jeremy  He studied at Oxford university.  On 15 June 1514, after 9 years study overseas and 3 years at Oxford, he supplicated for the B.Th.  He was admitted B.Th. c.1514.  [Reg. Univ. Oxford, ed. C. Boase, (Oxford Hist. Soc., 1885), i, 92: O.U. Arch., Reg. G, fo. 233v].
 
 He was incorporated B.Th. at Cambridge university in 1520-1.  He incepted as D.Th. in 1520-1.  [C.U. Grace Book, B, ii, 91, 92, 95: ibid., (T), pp. 195, 409].
 
 He was engaged with the provincial, John Bird (Carm.), in a visitation of the English province in 1521-2.  [Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, 1501-1540 A.D., (Oxford, 1974), 352].  He was at the York house in 1534.  [Emden, op. cit., 352].
 
 Carmelite of Doncaster at the suppression of the house and, on 30 Nov 1538, he was granted a dispensation to hold a benefice with change of habit.  [D. Chambers, Reg. Fac. Off., (Oxford, 1966), 160].

MANLOVEL, Richard  On 27 April 1289, John le Romeyn, archbishop of York, requested the Provincial, Henry of Hanna (Carm.), to receive Richard Manlovel, a canon of Thurgarton, of the Order of St. Augustine, into the Carmelite Order.  [Reg. Romeyn, York, (Surtees Soc., 1913), 123].

 MARRE, (Maregus, Marorus, Marr, Marraeis, Marraeus, Marrey, Marro, -ne, Marrus, Marry) John  (i) He was born in the village of Marr, near Doncaster, Yorks, (3,000 paces away) and, by tradition, he entered the Carmelites in Doncaster.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 88].  However, as the house was not founded until late in 1351, he must have joined the Order in York.
 
 He probably commenced his studies at York for he was ordained subdeacon on 18 Dec 1350 and priest on 17 Dec 1351.  [Reg. la Zouche, York; in Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, (Oxford, 1957-9), 1225].
 
 He continued his studies at Oxford where he was promoted D.Th.  On 26 Feb 1377, he was one of the commissioners appointed by the king to inquire into the opposition offered in Congregation to the statute framed to settle a dispute between the faculty of laws and the other faculties. [C.P.R., 1374-7, 491].
 
 He was prior of Doncaster for a number of years before his death there on 18 March 1408.  He was buried in the choir with the following epitaph on his tomb:
   Christe Iesu fratris Marri miserere Ioannis
     Cuius sarcophago corpus sepelitur in isto.
  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 88].

Among his writings, Bale attributes to him;
1. Lecturam Sententiarum, Lib. 4; [John Grossi, in Brit. Libr., Cotton Titus D.X., fo. 130: Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo.88v].
2. Tabulam originalium, Lib. 1: "Abscondere. Nota qualiter abscond."; [John Grossi, in Brit. Libr., Cotton Titus D.X., fo. 130: Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo.88v].
3. Determinaciones contra hereticos Wiclevitas, Lib. 1;  [Trithemius, J. De Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis, 901].
4. In epigrammata Martialis, Lib. 1: "Ethereas lascive cupidinis."; [Brit. Libr. Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 185v]
  Later, Bale entitles this work, In Valerium Martialem. [J. Bale, Script. Illustr. Bryt.,i, 532].
5. Compendium originalium, Lib. 1: "Supereminente Virginis Deipare."; [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 88v].
 Late additions to these writings and doubful are:
6. Sermones et questiones, Lib. 2;  [J. Bale, Script. Illustr. Bryt.,i, 532].
7. In Cantica Canticorum, Lib. 1; [Villiers, C., Bib. Carm., ii, 54].
 “Habentur alia adhuc eius scripta Oxoniis et alibi sed ad notitiam nostram hec sola venerunt.”
 [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 185v].

 Bibliography

1. P. Alberto de la Virgen del Carmen, O.C.D., Historia de la Filosofia Carmelitana, (Avila, 1947), 108-9:
2. Bale, J., Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 112v:
3. Bale, J., Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 171v:
4. Bale, J., Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fos. 88-88v:
5. Bale, J., Illustrium Maioris Britanniae ... Summarium, (Wesel, 1548), 179-179v:
6. Bale, J., Script. Illustr. Bryt... Catalogus, (Basle, 1557. repr. Gregg, 1972), i, 531-2:
7. Bostius, Arnold, Speculum Historiale (before 1491), in Milano Bibl. Brera AE xii.22, p. 569:
8. Emden, A. B., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, (Oxford, 1957-9), 1225:
9. Grossi, John, Viriduarium, in Brit. Libr., Ms. Cotton Titus D.X., fo. 130;
10. Matias del Niño Jesus, O.C.D., "El Carmelo Frente a la Falsa Reforma", Revista de Espiritualidad, (Jan.-Jun. 1946), v, no. 18, 307:
11. Pits, John, De Rebus Anglicis, (Paris, 1619), 585:
12. Tanner, Tho., Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica (London, 1748), 512:
13. T-t, J. Dict. Nat. Biog., (London, 1885), ...
14. Trithemius, J. De Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis, (1492), in Daniel a Virgine Maria, Speculum Carmelitanum, (Antwerp, 1680), 901:
15. Villiers, Cosmas, O.Carm., Bib. Carm. (Orléans, 1752. repr. Rome, 1927), ii, 53-4:
 
 METTRINGHAM, (Mettyngam) Thomas  Carmelite of York who signed the surrender document for the house on 27 Nov 1538.  [Eighth Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, (London, 1842), appendix ii, 51].  Subsequently he became the curate of Barwick, Yorkshire. [Dickens, A.G., Lollard and Protestants in the diocese of York, (London, 1982), 44].
 
 On 24 Sept 1540, he testified that he had:
  '...herd James Hardcastell say that there was no thing in the church that cold do him good, and he wold beleve in none of them, and even anone aftre, Hardcastell said that he belevid in the blissed sacrament of thaltare and said that he said the foresaid wordes to prove what such a dronken preist wold say.'
 This had happened the last 8 October in John Carter's house at Barwick in the presence of Miles Walker, chaplain there and three other witnesses.  Mettringham had also
  'herd oon Benyson of the same parish, which had his wief to be buried, say that James Hardcastell sayd that it was agenst the Kinge's articles to have Dirige said for a dede body, for it could not prevaile'.
 Hardcastell, he continued, was
  'named and suspected in the parish of Barwicke a man of yll opinions'.
 On 3 July last, Mettringham had heard Hardcastell say in the house of one Gilson at Barwick,
  'I wold that Cromwell had reigned longer, that he myght have punysshed you priestes, for yf he had continued, than I wold have trusted that a lay man shuld have said Masse as well as a priest.'
 
 Two lay witnesses having failed to substantiate these charges, William Lounde, cantarist at Howden but a native of Barwick and acquainted with Hardcastell for twenty-six years, deposed that he had heard Mettringham, then curate of Barwick, rebuke James Hardcastell, saying that
  'such wordes wold putt him to payne'.
 Lounde had asked Hardcastell
  'whie he wold have had [Cromwell] to a reigned longer?'
 Hardcastell pertly replied,
  'To have punisshed you priestes.'
 The case continued on 1 October, when Miles Walker, chaplain to Sir Thomas Johnson, knight, testified that:
  'about Whitesonday last past he was present in oon John Carter housse in Barwick in Elmett, where also were present William Ellys of Kiddall, Robert Rawson, Sir Thomas Mettringham, then curat of Barwicke, and James Hardcastell and oder mooe.  This deponent [Walker] and William Ellys satt at the table, and Sir Thomas Mettringham and James hardcastell satt by the chymney side, and he saith that he and William Ellys hard Sir Thomas Mettringham and James Hardcastell at woordes and herd Sir Thomas say unto James Hardcastell, "Yf thow use this, thow wylt be brente", at whiche wordes this deponent asked Sir Thomas Mettringham what the matter was, and Sir Thomas Mettringham said that James Hardcastell sayd that there was no thing in the church that could do him good.  And then this deponent said to James, 'No James, the blessid sacrament is in the church.  How say ye by it?'
 
 Thomas Jackson of Barwick, labourer, produced the statement that
  'on Sonday last was a forth night, Sir Thomas Mettringham wold have gevin this deponent xl s. to have said as he wold have had him to asaide'.
 Further witnesses gave evidence but, on 13 November, Hardcastell confessed and made a formal abjuration.  He was ordered 'una dies fustigationis circa ecclesiam de Barwick'. ('a day of scourging').  [York Diocesan Records, VII A.B. 2, fos. 130, 130v, 131, 131v, 133v, 134, 134v, 135, 136, 147v: in A.G. Dickens, op. cit., 44-7].
 
 NELAND, Adam  Listed as a Carmelite of York and a D.Th. when, on 2 April 1398, the administration was granted to him of the will of fr. Ric., episcopus Serviensis.  [Sede Vacante Reg. York, iii, fo. 224v].  Emden suggests that he probably studied for a period at Oxford.  [Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, (Oxford, 1957-9), 2199].
 
 Note: This 'fr. Ric. episcopus Serviensis' was a suffragan bishop of York between 1370-1399.  [Handbook Brit. Chron. (London: Royal Hist. Soc., 1986), 3rd. ed., 285].  It is probable that he was the Carmelite, Richard Wye (Carm.).
 
 On 19 Jan 1408, in the will of William, son of John de Escryk, of Selby, there is a bequest: "Magistro Ade de Ordine Fratrum Carmelensium Ebor., xiijs. iiijd." which probably also relates to Neland.  [North Country Wills, (Surtees Soc., 1908), 2-5].
 
 PASTON, Richard  Ordained accolyte on 23 Sept 1402 at the Dominican church, York, subdeacon on 10 March 1403 in York minster, deacon on 9 June 1403 at St. Nicholas, Bawtry, and 24 May 1404 at Cawood.  [Reg. Scrope, York, (Borthwick Inst., 1981), ii, 97].
 
 Possibly the same as the “Richard Paston” whose name occurs at the end of a copy of De Adventu Carmelitarum in Angliam suggesting he was the scribe. [K. Egan, "Historiography of the origin of the Carmelite Province in England", Carmelus, (Rome, 1972), xix, i, 74].  Note: However, the name was also common in East Anglia.
 
 PATRYNGTON, (Patredunus, Patrendunus, Patrigeton, Patrington, -us, Patringonnensis) Stephen  Fuller claims he was born at Patryngton in Yorkshire.  [Fuller, Worthies, ( ), ].  He was ordained accolyte on 19 Dec 1366, subdeacon on 4 March 1368, deacon on 23 Sept 1368 and priest on 8 June 1370.  [Reg. Thoresby, York, xi, ; in Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, (Oxford, 1957-9), 1436].
 
 He studied at Oxford university.  He was listed as the prior on 24 Nov 1373 when he was licensed to hear confessions in the diocese of Canterbury.  [Reg. Whittlesey, Canterbury, fo. 63v; in Emden, op. cit., 1436].
 
 He was the author of a letter dated 1381 from the mendicant orders in Oxford to John of Gaunt concerning the harmful activities of Wyclif's followers in Oxford and he took a leading part in opposing them.  [Fasciculi Zizaniorum, ed. W. Shirley, (Rolls Series, 1858), 292-5: J. Bale, Index Brit. Script., (Oxford, 1902), 418-9].
 
 He was still prior of Oxford and a B.Th. on 12 June 1382 when he attended the second session of the council convened by archbishop Courtenay at Blackfriars, London for the condemnation of Wyclif's erroneous conclusions and he signed the decrees made by the council.  [Fasc. Zizan., 289; D. Wilkins, Concilia, iii, 165].  He was a D.Th. by 1389.
 
 On 14 July 1382, the king issued an instruction to the chancellor and proctors of the university not to trouble him about Wycliffite doctrines or to censure him because of absence from the university.  [Cal. Close Rolls, 1381-1385, (London: HMSO, 1920), 140].
 
 On 14 Jan 1390, he was licensed to lecture and preach in Lincoln cathedral as the deputy for the chancellor. [Lincoln Cath. Acta Capitul., A.2.27, fos. 35v-36; in Emden, op. cit., 1436].  He is said to have been an influential preacher in London.  [J. Leland, Comment. de Script. Brit., 429-430].
 
 In 1396, Patryngton wrote to Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, against the statute which had just been passed by Parliament that no one less than twenty years of age could be received into any of the mendicant orders.  This letter began: "Reverendissimo in Christo patri."
 
 On 25 Sept 1397, he was granted a dispensation to hold a benefice with or without cure, "Religionis zelus, litterarum sciencia, necnon vite ac morum".  [Cal. Papal Letters, (London, 1904), v, 13].
 
 On 26 April 1399, he was given confirmation of:
  "Inspeximus and confirmation to Stephen de Patryngton, master in divinity, a Carmelite friar, of (1) letters patent (French) of John, duke of Lancaster, dated at London, 26 January in the twentieth year, granting to the said Stephen, for life, for good service to the duke and his duchess, 10l. a year from the issues of his lands and lordships in the county of Lincoln, and (2) letter patent (French) of Henry, duke of Hereford, dated at leicester, 24 December in the twnety-first year, inspecting and confirming the foregoing.
      For 2½ marks paid in the hanaper."
  [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1396-9, (London: HMSO, 1909), 535].
 
 He was elected provincial at the provincial chapter held in Plymouth some time after the death of John Kynyngham (Carm.), the previous provincial, on 12 May 1399. but had vacated the office by 1413.  His appointment was confirmed at the General Chapters held in Bologna in 1405 and in 1411.  [Bodl. Libr. Bodley Ms. 73 (S.C. 27635), fos. 81, 133v; D.N.B., article by C. L. Kingsford; Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., ed. G. Wessels, (Rome, 1912), i, 129, 139; J.H. Wylie, Reign of Henry V, i, 237-8, 290, 311-2, 542].
 
 In 1400, he issued a letter of confraternity to John Horssyngton and Alice.  [Peterhouse College, Cambridge, Ms. 251, flyleaf: Rev. Clark-Maxwell, "Some further letters of confraternity" Archaeologia, lxxix, (1929), 212].
 
 On Christmas Day 1401, he preached before Henry IV.  [P.R.O., E 101/404/21, fo. 35].  In 1405, he is mentioned as provincial when fr. Roger Aysthorpe (Carm.) was licensed to hear confessions.  [Reg. Repingdon, Lincoln, (Lincoln Rec. Soc., 1963), iii, 44].
 
 On 21 July 1405, he was described as 'S.T.M.' when he was granted an indult to use a portable altar.  [Cal. Papal Letters, (London, 1904), vi, 19].
 
 Three letters written by Patryngton to the king survive: they are appeals for the arrest and return of some vagabond friars.  Two were written in London, the first on 24 Jan 1408 and the second on 12 Nov 1413.  The third was written in London but the date is indecipherable.  [P.R.O. C81/1793/21-23].  In 1409, he issued a letter of confraternity to Sir William .....  [Bodl. Libr. Rawlinson Ms. C. 72, flyleaf at beginning: Rev. Clark-Maxwell, "Some further letters of confraternity" Archaeologia, lxxix, (1929), 212].  Note: The date has been corrected to correspond to Patryngton's tenure of the provincialship.
 
 On 1 May 1412, his seal occurs on an agreement between the Carmelites of Winchester and Winchester College.  This document is still preserved in the muniment room at the college.  There was a feast held in the college to celebrate this agreement.  [Kirby, T. F., Annals of Winchester College, (London, Henry Frowde, 1892), 159-160].
 
 In 1413, he was appointed chaplain to Henry V but later vacated this office on his consecration as bishop in 1415.  [J. H. Wylie, op. cit., i, 237-8].  On 28 Aug 1413, he was beqeathed 15 marks in the will of Robert Sutton, merchant of Lincoln and a member of one of the most prominent families in the town.  [Reg. Repingdon, Lincoln, iii, 28].  On  4 Jan 1415, he was sent by king Henry V to proceed against the Lollards in Oxford.  [Yardley, E., Menevia Sacra, ed. F. Green, (London, 1927), 66].  Patryngton was known as 'disputator acutissimus'.  [Mudroch, Wyclif Tradition, 5].
 
 He was appointed bishop of St. David's, by papal provision on 1 Feb 1415; the temporalities were restored on 6 April, 1415; he was consecrated in All Saints, Maidstone, by Henry Chichele, archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by the bishops of London and Norwich on 19 June 1415.  [Cal. Patent Rolls, 1413-1416, (London: HMSO, 1910), 336: Cal. Papal Letters, (London, 1904), vi, 350, 458; Th. Rymer, Foedera, ix, 217, 268; William Stubbs, Reg. Sacr. Anglic., 85; E. Yardley, Menevia Sacra, (Cambrian Archaeol. Assoc.,  ), 66-7; H. Emmanuel, "A Fragment of the Register of Stephen Patryngton, bishop of St. David's", Journal Hist. Soc. of Church in Wales, ii, (1950), 31-45: C. Eubel, Hierarch. Cath. Medii et Recent. Aevi, (Regensburg, 1913, repr. 1960), i, 336: Handbook Brit. Chron., (Royal Hist. Soc., 1986), 298].  Thomas Netter, the Carmelite provincial, was present at Patryngton's consecration in Maidstone.  [see Netter (Carm.)].
 
 On 4 Sept 1416, Patryngton was present in an outer chamber of the Carmelite house, Sandwich, in the presence of king Henry V, the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop of Durham and other nobles, when the bishop of Winchester handed over the great seal before departing overseas with the king.  [Cal. Close Rolls, 1419-1422, (London: HMSO, 1932), 368].  It would seem likely that Patryngton himself accompanied the king overseas.
 
 Patryngton had postulated for the see of Chichester in 1415 and on 27 July 1415, he appointed two proctors to further his suit.  The temporalities were restored on 25 Aug 1416.  However, the bull of translation was delayed owing to the vacancy of the papacy and was only issued on 15 Dec 1417.  Patryngton's death occurred before the bull could be put into effect.  [C. Eubel, op. cit., i, 187; Cal. Papal Letters, (London, 1906), vii, 45; C.P.R., 1416-22, 132; J. Wylie, op. cit., i, 311-2; H. D. Emmanuel, op. cit., 40-1; Handbook Brit. Chron., 239].
 
 On 8 Nov 1417, he was granted letters of protection before going overseas with the king to the Council of Constance.  [Th. Rymer, op. cit., ix, 509].  However, before he could leave, he died in London, probably on 22 Dec 1417.  [Bodl. Libr. Bodley Ms. 73 (S.C. 27635), fo. 50v, 51].  He was buried in the middle of the choir of the Carmelite church in London.  [J. Weever, Ancient Funerall Monuments, 437-8; Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fos. 43v, 90v-91, 193v-194].  His will was dated on 16 Nov 1417 and proved on 29 Dec 1417.  [Reg. Chichele, Canterbury, (C.Y.S., 1938), ii, 133-5, 137: Yardley, E., Menevia Sacra, (London, 1927), 379-318].
 
 Bale preserves an epitaph to Patryngton:
  "Hic frater Stephanus de Patryngton requiesces,
    Nomine reque fuit norma corona pater.
  Ens Carmelitis rector, doctor, prior Anglis,
    Confessor celebris regis et ipse manens.
  Henrici quinti Menevensis quoque presul
    Christus in aureolam pillea mutet ei.
  Sit ut ei tene simul et mitre bonus usus
    Premia doctoris, pontificisque ferat."
  [Bodl. Libr. Bodley Ms. 73 (S.C. 27635), fo. 50].
 
 It was possibly Patryngton who collected some of the early chapters for the history of the conflict with Wyclifism to which was subsequently added extra material by Thomas Netter (Carm.) and published under the title Fasciculi Zizaniorum; see introduction by W.W. Shirley, (Rolls Series, 1858).
 
Only a fragment, comprising 4 folios, of his episcopal register survives, preserved in New College Ms. 360; these cover the period 4 July to Nov 1415; see H. Emmanuel, "A Fragment of the Register of Stephen Patryngton, bishop of St. David's", Journal Hist. Soc. of Church in Wales, ii, (1950), 31-45.

Bale ascribes to him;
1. Commentarios Sententiarum (or Lecturam super summas), Lib. 4: "Patres in Christo reverendi, atque.";
  Lectures given whilst Patryngton was at Oxford.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 71v].
2. Repertorium argumentorum suorum, Lib. 1: "Quod viator non parte per aliquem actum esse certus de aliqua existencia alicuius rei a se etc.";  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 4, 71v, 200].
  This Repertorium argumentorum, collected prior to Patryngton's inception, is contained in St. John's College, Cambridge, Ms. 103. [see S.L. Forte, Some mid-14th-Cent. Oxford Schoolmen, Bodl. Libr. Ms. B.Litt. c. 10-11, 1947].  The contents have been described in detail in Kennedy, L., "A Carmelite 14th Century Theological Notebook", Carmelus, (1986), xxxiii, 70-102.
3. De sacerdotali functione, Lib. 1: "Opus fac Evangelistae, 2. Timo.";
4. In Paulum ad Titum, Lib. 1: "Hanc epistolam scripsit Apostolus.";
5. Determinationes contra hereticos Wickleffistas, Lib.1;
  This was written during the time Patryngton was regent of studies at Oxford.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 71v].
6. Glossam in Pasturale Carmen (or Eglogas) Theodoli, Lib. 1: "Ethiopum terras, etc.  Estas fervida terruit in adussit usque ad nigredinem.";  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 40v, 200].
7. In Aesopi fabulas, Lib. 1: "Quae alteri commodavit, repetere.";
8. Contra Nicolaum Herforde, Lib. 1: "Illustrissimo principi ac Domino.";
 This has been preserved and published as:
 "Epistola vel litera quatuor ordinum claustralium Oxoniae ad Dominum Johannem Ducem Lancastrie contra Magistrum Nicolaum Herforde et alios pacem perturbantes", in Fasciculi Zizaniorum, ed. W. W. Shirley, (London: Rolls Series, 1858), 292-5.
 Note: Shirley attributes the collection of the documents transcribed in pp. 1-359 of the Fasciculi Zizaniorum to Patryngton's efforts whilst he was provincial.
9. Sermones 72 de tempore, Lib. 1: "Hosanna in excelsis, Marci 11.";
  These were from the First Sunday of Advent until Easter. [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 40v].
10. Sermones de sanctis, Lib. 1;
  The sermons in the previous two books were delivered on various occasions before king Henry V and other leading nobles of the kingdom especially Henry, prince of Wales, and before queen Katherine.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 71v].
11. Quaestiones ordinarias, Lib. 1: "Utrum omnis clericus, existens.";
12. Collectanea quaedam, Lib. 1: "Quis est iste, qui venit de Edom?";
13. Epistolas ad diversos, Lib. 1: "Frater Stephanus Patrington.";
14. Contra statutum quoddam, Lib. 1: "Reverendissimo in Christo patri.";
15. Determinationes quoquae, Lib. 1;
 'Sunt et alia eius scripta, in diversis Anglorum bibliothecis'.
  [J. Bale, Script. Illustr. Bryt., i, 538-9].
 
 Bibliography
 

1. P. Alberto de la Virgen del Carmen, O.C.D., Historia de la Filosofia Carmelitana, (Avila, 1947), 109-110:
2. Bale, J., Bodl. Libr. Bodley Ms. 73 (S.C. 27635), fos. 40v, 50v, 71v, 108v, 113:
3. Bale, J., Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 176:
4. Bale, J., Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fos. 33v-34, 90v-91, 193v-194:
5. Bale, J., Lambeth Palace Libr., Ms. 192, fo. 43v:
6. Bale, J., Illustrium Maioris Britanniae ... Summarium, (Wesels, 1548), fo. 182:
7. Bale, J., Script. Illustr. Bryt... Catalogus, (Basle, 1557-9. repr. Gregg, 1972), i, 538-9:
8. Bale, J., Index Brit. Script., (Oxford, 1902), 418-9:
9. Bostius, Arnold, Speculum Historiale (before 1491), in Milano Bibl. Brera AE xii.22, p. 568-9:
10. Register of Henry Chichele: Archbishop of Canterbury 1414-1453, edited by E.F.Jacobs, vol i, (Oxford 1943) 23-25.  [Contains the Papal bull providing Stephen Patryngton, to the see of St. Davids and his consecration, taking of the oath, profession of obedience and giving of the spiritualities of the see]
11. Emmanuel, H., "A Fragment of the Register of Stephen Patryngton, Bishop of St. Davids" Journal of the Historical Society of the Church in Wales, ii, (1950), 31-45:
12. Emden, A. B., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, (Oxford, 1957-9), 1435-6:
13. Forte, S.L. Some 14th Century Oxford Schoolmen, (Bodl. Libr. Ms. B.Litt. c10-11, 1947), ?section on Stephen Patryngton:
14. Fuller, Worthies, ( ), c. 196:
15. Godwin, F. De Praesulibus Angliae, (London, 1616), 557, 612:
16. Kennedy, Leonard, C.S.B., "Late-fourteenth-century philosophical scepticism at Oxford", Vivarium, (Assen, 1985), 23, no. 2, 124-151:
17. Kennedy, Leonard A., C.S.B. "A Carmelite 14th Century Theological Notebook" Carmelus, xxxiii, (1986), 70-102:
18. Kingsford, C. L., Dict. Nat. Biog., (London, 1885-), xliv, 47-8:
19. Leland, John, Commentarii de Scriptoribus Britannicis, ed. Anthony Hall, (Oxford: Sheldonian, 1709), 429-430:
20. P. Matias del Nino Jesu, "El Carmelo frente a la falsa Reforma" Revista de Espiritualidad, v, (Jan.-Jun. 1946), 307:
21. "Patrington, Étienne" Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique, (Paris, 1903-50), xi, 2326:
22. Pits, John, De Rebus Anglicis, (Paris, 1619), 596-7:
23. Tanner, Tho., Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica (London, 1748), 581:
24. Villiers, C., Bib. Carm., (Orléans, 1752. repr. Rome, 1927), ii, 764-7, 971-3:
25. Xiberta, B. "Étienne de Patrington" Dictionnaire de Spiritualité, (Paris, 1936-), iv, 1517:
26. Yardley, Edward, Menevia Sacra, ed. Francis Green, (London: Bedford Press, 1927), 66-67, 379-381.
 
 PAUL, (de St. Pagham, de Pagula, Paulo) William  Bale claims that he came from York and joined the Carmelites there.  He studied at Oxford where he was awarded a D.Th. before 1327.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 164].  Elsewhere Bale, in his confusion with William Hanabergh, makes a reference suggesting that Paul also studied in Paris.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 60].  Note: However, his name does not occur on any of the lists of doctors in Paris and it is more likely that this reference is to William Pagan (Carm.).
 
 In Aug 1322, he was prior of the York house.  [P.R.O., Exch. Issue Roll, E 403/198: in Emden, op. cit., 1437].
 
 On 16 Feb 1327, he was provided to the bishopric of Meath and he was consecrated in Avignon, probably in the same month.  On 24 July, 1327, the temporalities were restored.  He remained bishop until his death in July 1349.  [C. Eubel, Hierarchia Cath. Medii et Recent. Aevi, (Regensburg, 1913, repr. 1960), i, 338; C.P.R. 1327-1330, 139, 166; Handbook Brit. Chron., (Royal Hist. Soc., 1986), 368; for the text of the papal letter providing him to the diocese, see Bullarium Carm., i, 553-4].  Knowles lists him as being resident in his see but there is no evidence that he was ever there.  On the other hand, Bale’s lack of information on his burial may, by default, indicate that he was not buried in England.  [D. Knowles, Religious Orders in England, (Cambridge, 1950), ii, 372].
 
 On 19 Aug 1327, he was commissioned to reconcile the churchyard of the Carmelite house, Nottingham, which had been polluted by bloodshed and also to dedicate portable altars there.  [Reg. Melton, York, (C.Y.S., 1977), i, 88].  Paul died in July 1349.  [C. Eubel, op. cit., i, 338].  Villiers suggests it was c. 26 July.  [Villiers, op. cit., i, 605]
 
 Bale notes that William de Paul was a friend of John Walsingham (Carm.) and was mentioned in his Questiones theologie.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 137: Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fo. 60].  He also claims that he wrote:
1.  De ente rationis formaliter, etc.    -
 [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 217]
 Villiers gives a discussion of the confusion and a suggested list of works for William de Paul but this need to be checked against magister William de Pagula with whom he is often confused.  [Villiers, C., Bib. Carm., (Orléans, 1752. repr. Rome, 1927), i, 605-6].  Emden also notes that he is confused by some biographers with his namesake, mag. William de Paul or Pagula.  [Emden, op. cit., 1437: L. Boyle in R.H.S.T., 5th series, v, 1955, 99-100v].  Bale confuses him continually with William Pagan de Hanaberg (Carm.).  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fos. 60-60v].

 Bibliography

1. Bale, J. Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fos. 118v, 137, 217:
2. Bale, J., Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 164:
3. Bale, J., Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fos. 60-60v:
4. Bale, J., Lambeth Palace Libr., Ms. 192, fo. 43v:
5. Boyle, L. E., Royal Historical Society Trans., 5th series, v, (1955), 99-100 n.:
6. Bullarium Carmelitanum, ed. Eliseo Monsignano, (Rome, 1715-68) i, 553-4:
7. Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, (Oxford, 1957-9), 1437:
8. Eubel, C., Hierarchia Cath. Medii et Recent. Aevi, (Regensburg, 1913, repr. 1960), i, 338
9. Leland, John, Commentarii de Scriptoribus Britannicis, ed. Anthony Hall, (Oxford: Sheldonian, 1709), 361:
10. "Pagula, Guillaume de" Dictionnaire de Théologie Catholique, (Paris, 1903-50), xi, 1730:
11. Pits, John, De Rebus Anglicis, (Paris, 1619), 363-4:
12. Pollard, A. F., Dict. Nat. Biog. (London, 1885- ), :
13. Tanner, Tho., Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica (London, 1748), 581-2:
14. Villiers, C., Bib. Carm., (Orléans, 1752. repr. Rome, 1927), i, 605-6; ii, 918:
15. Ware, Sir James, The Whole Works, trans. & revised Walter Harris, (Dublin, 1764), i, 146; ii, 321:
16. Zimmerman, B., Mon. Hist. Carm., (Lérins, 1907), i, 225-7, 436:

 PENTEREL, William  Prior of York in Feb 1349.  [Reg. Zouche, York, fo. 278v; in A. Little, Hist. of Yorks., (V.C.H., 1913), iii, 293].

 POLESTEAD, (Pesteyden, Poleshead, Polestede, Polestedus, Polesteyte, Polostadius, Postlede) John  Born in Suffolk, he joined the Carmelites at Ipswich.  [Bodl. Libr. Bodley Ms. 73 (S.C.  27635), fos. 80, 133v].  He studied at Oxford university where he gained a D.Th. probably before 1335.
 
 In Aug 1320, he was at the London convent when he received the royal alms on behalf of the provincial chapter to be held in London.  [P.R.O., Exch. Issue Roll, E 403/195].
 
 In 1327, he was assigned to be Biblicus at the Paris convent by the General Chapter.  [Acta Capitul. Gen Ord. Carm. ed. Wessels, (Rome, 1912), i, 28].
 
 It is claimed that he was prior of King's Lynn before 1335.  [P. McCaffrey, White Friars, (Dublin, 1926), 229].
 
 In 1335, he was elected provincial at the provincial chapter held in King's Lynn.  He was appointed vicar-general for England by the Prior General Peter de Casa.  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., i, 28n].  He was present at the General Chapters at Brussels in May 1336 and Limoges in May 1339.  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., i, 33, 35].  He held Provincial Chapters at Stamford in 1336, Cambridge in 1338, Nottingham in 1339 and London in 1341.  [Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, fo. 80].
 
 Polestead remained in office until his death in York on 12 Oct 1341 and he was buried there "sub splendido marmore tumulatus".  [Bodl. Libr. Bodley Ms. 73, fos. 80, 133v: Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fos. 43v, 67v-68].
 
 Bale describes him: 'in concionibus ad plebem audientes omnes linguae suae dulcedine ad sese trahebat'.  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., i, 28n].

Bale ascribes the following works to him:
1. Sententiarum commentarios, Lib. 4;
2. commentary on Physics  of Aristotle, Lib. 8: "Consideratio Philosophi in hoc...";
3. Conciones per annum, Lib. 1: "Dicite filiae Syon, ecce rex."
 These were probably the sermons given in Lincoln which Bale notes.  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., i, 28n].;
4. Indices copiosi in S. Augustinum, Lib. 1: "Amat mortem, qui praecepta Dei.";
5. Epistolae ad diversos, Lib. 1: "Omnibus Christi fidelibus.";
6. Sermones in visitationibus, Lib. 1;
7. Questiones variae, Lib. 1;
 "Feruntur et alia sed a me nondum visa".
  [J. Bale, Script. Illustr. Bryt., i, 415].

 Bibliography

1. Acta Capitul. Gen Ord. Carm. ed. Wessels, (Rome, 1912), i, 28 & n, 33, 35:
2. Bale, J., Bodl. Libr., Ms. Bodley 73, (S.C. 27635), fos. 80, 133v:
3. Bale, J., Bodl. Libr., Ms. Selden supra 41, fo. 167:
4. Bale, J., Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 3838, fos. 43v, 67v-68, 173v:
5. Bale, J., Illustrium Maioris Britanniae ... Summarium, (Wesels, 1548), fo. 144:
6. Bale, J., Script. Illustr. Bryt... Catalogus, (Basle, 1557-9), i, 415:
7. Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, (Oxford, 1957-9), 1491-2:
8. Leland, John, Commentarii de Scriptoribus Britannicis, ed. Anthony Hall, (Oxford: Sheldonian, 1709), 358:
9. Lohr, Charles, S.J., "Medieval Latin Aristotle commentaries", Traditio, (1971), xxvii, 272:
10. McCaffrey, P., White Friars, (Dublin, 1926), 229:
11. Pits, John, De Rebus Anglicis, (Paris, 1619), 448-9:
12. Tanner, Tho., Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica (London, 1748), 437:
13. Villiers, C., Bib. Carm., (Orléans, 1752. repr. Rome, 1927), ii, 78-9:
14. Zimmerman, B., "The White Friars at Ipswich, Proc. Suffolk Inst. of Archaeol. & Nat. Hist., (1899), x, 200.

 PONTFREYT, John  In 1387, he was a member of the York community and, with the prior of York, Mauger de Baildon (Carm.), he was one of the executors of a will.  The executors brought an action against the prior of Drx to recover £100.  [Baildon, William Paley, Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire: Part I, (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1894), Record Series, xvii, 43].

- , Robert  (iii) Prior of York in 1473 when he issued a letter of confraternity to Richard Wade and Joan, his wife.  [Bodl. Chart. 82; in A. Little, Hist. of Yorks., (V.C.H., 1913), iii, 293].

SCARGIL, (Shargill) Henry  Ordained deacon on 17 March 1375 in Cawood manor chapel, Yorks., and priest on 22 Sept 1375 in the Carmelite church, York.  [Reg. Neville, York, fos. 119, 121].

Baccalareus by 26 April 1411 when he was the definitor for the English province at the General Chapter held in Bologna.  [Acta Capitul. Gen. Ord. Carm., ed. G. Wessels, (Rome, 1912), i, 137].

 SELBY, Robert  He was ordained priest on 12 June 1378 in York minster.  [Reg. Neville, York, fo. 133].
 
 On 10 Dec 1420, in the will of John Beuche, apothecary, Robert Selby was left 6s.8d. and a small maplewood goblet with silver band (one of a set of two).  [M.L. vol. i, 200V: information from Ms. Tessa Frank].
 
 THORPE, William  (i) In 1289, he received £6 13s 4d from the king for one day's expenses for the provincial chapter held in Oxford that year.  [Records of the Wardrobe and Household, 1286-1289, ed. B. & C. Byerly, (H.M.S.O., 1986), 304].  In April 1297, he received royal alms on behalf of the Cambridge convent.  [PRO, C. 47/4/6, fo. 1].
 
 He was prior of York in 1304 when the royal alms were given to him for the house.  [PRO, E. 101/356/7; Liber Quotid. Contrarot. Garderoba, 28 Edw. I, ed. Topham, 39].

 Bibliography

1. Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Camb., (Camb. Univ. Press, 1963), 684.

 THWAYET, H.  He was prior of York on 12 May 1490 when he took an action against Sir Thomas Davell, parson of St. Saviour's, York, and recovered 40s.  [The York House Books 1461-1490, ed. Lorraine C. Attred (Stroud, Glos.: Alan Sutton, for the Richard III & Yorkist History Trust, 1991), 679].
 
 Possibly to be identified with “E.Th. Prior”, the Carmelite listed as prior of Doncaster in 1515.  [Hunter, J., South Yorks, (London, 1828-31), i, 17].

 ULFEDALE, (Ulvedale) Adam  Ordained accolyte on 21 Sept 1308 in Dalston.  [Reg. Halton, Carlisle, (C.Y.S., 1906), i, 304].
 
 D.Th. of Oxford university.  He was there in 1346 when he was confessor to mag. Jo. de Wodhous by whom he was beqeathed 5 marks.  [Emden, A. "Additions and Corrections to A Biographical Register of the University of Oxford to A.D. 1500: Supplemental List No. 2" Bodleian Library Record, vii, (1963-4), 161]
 
 Carmelite of York on 19 Feb 1348, when he was granted a licence to hear confessions in the diocese.  [Reg. la Zouche, York, x, fo. 278; in Emden, A., Biog. Reg. Univ. Oxford, (Oxford, 1957-9), 2223].

WHITE, (Whytt) John (ii)  Carmelite of York when he signed the surrender document for the house on 27 Nov 1538.  [Eighth Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, (London, 1842), appendix ii, 51].  Possibly the same person who became a chantry priest in St. Crux, York, and was later the curate there.  [Reformation: Principle and Practice, essays in honour of A. G. Dickens, ed. Peter Newman Brooks, (London: Scolar Press, 1980), 212]

 -  , William  (v)  Prior of York in 1371 when he sued John de Taddecastre and Thomas, son of Henry de Grymeston, for accounts as his receivers of moneys.  The defendants did not appear and the case was postponed until the next term.  [De Banco R. Trin. 45 Edw. III, m. 184: Mich. 45 Edw. III, m. 204: in A. Little, Hist. of Yorks. (V.C.H., 1913), iii, 293].
 
 He was still prior in 1378 when he sued Elen, widow of Thomas de Duffeld, and others for debt, and again, in the same year, he brought an action against John de Housom, potter, for breaking the prior's close, digging in the soil and taking away earth to the value of 10 marks.  [W. Baildon, Notes on the Religious & Secular Houses of Yorkshire: Part I., (Yorks. Archaeol. Soc., 1895), 242].

 WY, John  Carmelite of York who on 19 July 1386 received a pardon for causing the death of fr. John Harald (Carm.) in 1374 in the York convent and his consequent outlawry.  [Pat. 10 Richard II, pt. ii, m. 37; A. Little, Hist. of Yorks., (V.C.H., 1913), iii, 292].

YORKE, (Eboracensis, Eboraco, Yorchus, Zorke) John  (i) Carmelite of York.  He studied at Oxford university where he was awarded a D.Th.  [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 1819, fo. 157].

Bale made a note of three works by him which he saw in the Carmelite library at Norwich;
1. Lectura sententiarum, Lib. 4: "In principio creavit Deus coelum et terram, etc.  Prehonorabiles domini, patres, ac magistri etc.."; [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 1819, fo. 157].
 In his later printed work, Bale entitled this work Lecturas in Genesin and gave it only one book.  [Bale, John, Script. Illustr. Bryt., (Basle, 1557-9), ii, 86].
2. Preconia Scripture sacre, Lib. 1: "Ego sum via, veritas et vita: qui  &c."; [Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 1819, fo. 157].
3. Ordinariae expositiones, Lib. 1; [J. Bale, Script. Illustr. Bryt., ii, 86].
 He adds 'Et alia, quorum tituli in Nordovicensi monachorum coenobio cum praedictis non inveniebantur'.
 [J. Bale, Script. Illustr. Bryt., ii, 86].

 Bibliography

1. Bale, John, Brit. Libr., Ms. Harley 1819, fo. 157:
2. Bale, John, Script. Illustr. Bryt., (Basle, 1557-9), ii, 86:
3. Pits, J., De Rebus Anglic., (Paris, 1619), 874.

 
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1) "Acti Petri Terrasse, magistri generalis" edited by Fr. Benedict Zimmerman, O.D.C., Analecta Ordinis Carmelitarum Discalceatorum, (Rome, 1929-30), iv, 109-123, 250-263; (Rome, 1930-31), v, 22-30, 87-91, 136-156.
 Translation in Richard Copsey, “The visit of the prior general, Peter Terrasse, to England in 1504-5”, Carmel in Britain, (Rome: Institutum Carmelitanum, 1992), i, 176-204.
 
2) Addyman, P.V. Archaeology of York, London (in progress), vol. xiii.
 
3) Allison, K. J., "The Carmelite Friary", A History of Yorkshire, City of York, (London: Victoria County History, 1961), 361-362  (VCH)
 
4) Baildon, William Paley, Notes on the Religious and Secular Houses of Yorkshire, (Yorkshire Archaeological Society, Record Series vol. xvii, 1894: vol. lxxxi, 1931).
 In pt. 1, pp. 242-3 & pt. 2, pp. 90-91; there are the records of ten court cases involving priors of York.
 
5) Dobson, Barrie, "Mendicant Ideal and Practice in Late Medieval York" in Archaeological papers from York: presented to M. W. Barley, edited by P.V. Addyman and V.E. Black, (York: York Archaeological Trust, 1984), 109-122
 
6) Dugdale, Sir William  Monasticon Anglicanum  London 1665-73 (repr. London 1846), 3 vols.

7) Dymon, Mary E., “The Carmelite Friary”, A History of Yorkshire: East Riding, (London: Victoria Country History, 1969), i, 334.  (VCH II)
 
8) Egan, Keith, O.Carm., "Medieval Carmelite Houses; England and Wales", Carmelus, (Rome, 1969), xvi, 142-226.
 
9) Egan, Keith, O.Carm., "An Essay towards a Historiography of the Origin of the Carmelite Province in England", Carmelus, (Rome, 1972), xix, 67-100
 
10) EY Interim Report No. 1: Addyman, P.V., "Excavations in York 1972-73: First Interim Report", Antiquarian Journal, (1975), liv, 227-231.
 
11) Kiely, M. B., "Whitefriars, York. 1253, 1295", Bulletin of the Anglo-Welsh Carmelite province, (December, 1974), v, 4, 6-8
 
12) The Itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535-1543, ed. Lucy Toulmin Smith (London: Centaur, 1964), vol. i, p. 55
 
13) Little, A. G., "The White Friars of York", A History of Yorkshire, (London: Victoria County History, 1913, repr. 1974), iii, 291-293
 
14) McCaffrey, Rev. P. R., O.Carm., The White Friars, an outline Carmelite history with special reference to the English-speaking provinces, (Dublin, M. H. Gill, 1926).
 
15) Raine, Angelo, M. A., "The Carmelite Friary", in Medieval York, (1955), 63-65
 
16) Richardson, H., "The Mendicant Friars of Medieval York", Yorkshire Philosophical Society annual report for 1965, 40-73.
 
17) Richardson, K. M., "Excavations in Hungate, York", Archaeological Journal, (1959), cxvi, 51-114.
 
18) Smet, Joachim, The Carmelites: a history of the brothers of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, (Darien, Illinois: Carmelite Spiritual Center, 4 vols. 1975-85).
 
19) Villiers, P. Cosmas de, Bibliotheca Carmelitana, (Aureliana 1752. repr. Rome 1927)
 
20) Wright, T., Suppression of the Monasteries, (Camden Society, )
 
21) Zimmerman, Fr. Benedict, O.D.C.,  Monumenta Historica Carmelitana, (Lerins, 1907), vol. I.

 

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